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Full text of "Preliminary report on a part of the Similkameen District, British Columbia [microform]"

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GEOLOGICAL SURVl Y OF CANADA 
A. P. LOW, Deputy Mead and Director 



PRELIMINARY REPORT 

ON A HART 

OF THE 

SIMILKAMEHN DISTRICT 

BRITISH COLUMBIA 



BY 



CHARLES CAMSELL. 



1617 



OTTAWA: 

GOVERNMENT PRINTING BUREAU 
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fif:OI.()(;iCAI. Sl'kVHV u|. CANADA 

A. I'. LOW. I.MTTV liKM, ^^,. ,mh,.ct,.k 



PRELIMINARY RHPORT 



ox A PART 



OF THt; 



SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICT 

I5KITISH CDLUMHIA 



lf!I7 



By 



CHARLKS CAMSKLL. 



OTTAWA : 

GDVKt'.NMENT I RINTING idREA 
1907 



>fo ftMO 



•■iCjuaeMiWfflti 



'^8S 



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■\ 



A. r. I.dW. Esq., 

Director (Icoloniial Si ■ vi v of C.in.iria 

n. AK S,K, -II..r..wi,h I lH« ,o M.h.ni, .. pr,.l,n,i,urv r. ,„.r, .,f 
mv ,„v. st.«....„„s in tlu Si.nilk.un.n. mi.,.M« .liMricl of > ..,!,. n. 
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acconipaiiics tlu' nporf 

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dan,, .nvn.rs i„ ,1,. ,|.s,rict for much co„rf.s^ .„;i u.uI.k.ss 
son,, „i ul..,n u.lliMulv K.n-i- n|. ih. ir fi„„. ,„ ,„,„,,„,t (,„, ,^,; 
ovo ,,ar.K-.il:.r Mvtions of country that th.v knew udl a.ul 
which wuul.l ha\c cntailc.l consi-kTal-V- lossof li„u- I,, us to have 
.xainin...Iunai,K,l M, h, Watcrn, , resident maiiaKcr of U.e 
\ernnhoii I'orks Mmnujaiwl l)ev..|„p„„.„, O-nipanv at iTincvtoii 
v.rv km.liv supplM.I nie uilli copies of ,hc records of tlie various 
hore holes that hue ■>eeti .hilled iu ihe T.rtiarv coal hasin Mr 
^. I; Law and Mr lanil \-oi«t supplied lue will, mi.cii infor' 
■""■"" "" 111. liis'orv and .levelopnient of the ,es,Haive areas 
tl'at th,,v are mterest.d i,,. on Hear creek and Copper mountain 
res,Kc,nelv. Mr. ] W Uat.nnan of .)kana«a,i Falls was ,..od 
eno,,.,d. to Kive rn. ,. detailed .uvount of the several hvdraulic 
ventures exploite.l in ll„ Siniilkani, . n and lulanieen .li.tricts 
connnencin;,^ fnm, the ve.r ,,s.,,, T„ Uws. gentlemen I wish to 
e.\|))\s-, un- thank- fur Ih.ir >,'elleroi s assistance. 

I riin lin, sir, 

Vonr oheditnt servant, 



irr.\',v\. .Vpril. ny,-. 



CHARLES C.V.\ SELL. 



I 7 - 1 .: 



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'aR.v'V7/.jL, jjij^iS?- ^Tsam^s^sssp^^r. JK.sf *.:- 'f- '-^ 



CONTEXTS. 



T<.|>of,Ta|)lii(al and (Jeological Work . 

Sumiiiarv of OjKTaliotis 

Situation 

f'liniatp 

History and Deselopnipnl 

Previous (Jeolrjjjical Work 

I'liysiofjraphy 

Glaeiation 

Agrirultural I^nd 

Geology 

Palseozoic 

Post-Pala'ozoic 

Cretaceous 

Oligocene 

Post-Olijroicii,. 

Coal 



Ore Deposits. 
Bear Creek. . . 



'AOE. 

8 
7 
10 
II 
12 
17 
18 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
31 
28 
32 
37 



wmnsm<mm^ 



i.tk ■ 



^l^k^ima^^vii^^^MMF^mBNI^^-ls^^im'' 



PRELIMIXARY REPORT. 



Summary of Operations. 

My instructions for the season wire, to commence a topo- 
graphical and geological survey of the Similkameen district of 
southern British Columbia, the object being to carry out for this 
district what has already been done for West Kootenav bv Messrs 
Brock and Boyd of this Department, namely, the publication of a 
map on a scale of four miles to the inch with a contour interval 
of two hundred feet. This sheet, which will be called the Simil 
kamcen sheet, will cover an area of about .-^..sm square miles, and 
will embrace the mining camps of Bear creek, Granite creek 
Copper mountain, Roche river, Hedley, Ollala and Fairview,' 
including the country from the Okanagan vallev to the Hope 
mountains, and from the International Boundarv northward for 
a distance of about forty-five miles. 

A work of this magnitude must of nccessitv occupv the attention 
of any field party for several seasons, but as certain sections 
of this area are economically of far greater importance than 
others I was instructed to confine the work of the first seasons 
to the more accessible and more developed portions of the district, 
leaving the remainder for a later date. 

Princeton, ^he most central point for the region selected, 
was chosen as the headquarters for the season, and except for a 
hurried reconnaissance, at the end of the season, of the important 
camp of Bear creek on the Tulameen river, all the work was 
confined to a belt about eight miles wide King between this place 
and the International Boundary. This belt, which covers an 
area of about 250 square miles, is the subject of this report and 
will be referred to as the South Similkameen district. 

Though the early part of the season was verv wet, no rain fell 
from the end of June until the beginning of September, so that the 
forest fires, which started in July, remained unchecked for several 
weeks, during which the pall of smoke rendered it impossible to 
carr\- on triangulation. For this reason the original intention of 
extending the topographic n.ap up the Tulameen river had to be 
abandoned. 



■tP 



8 



GEOLOGICAL SURVKY OF CANADA. 



Transport of supplies was effected bv means of pack horses 
obtained at Penticton. The party consisted of four and included 
Mr. J. A. Allan, assistant, and two men. 






Topographical and Oeolo-jcal Work. 

The topographic work consisted of a skeleton transit triangula- 
tion begun on the International Boundary Line, where it crosses 
the Pasayton river, and carried down the Similkameen river 
to Pnnceton, taking in a belt about eight miles wide Two 
nionuments on the Boundary Line furnished an excellent base for 
the commencement of the triangulation. As the whole belt 
south of Whipsaw creek is only traversed bv one main trail, and 
the bordering country is very rough and heavilv timbered manv 
traverses and stations necessary for a more complete survev had 
to be abandoned. An area of about . 20 square miles, embracing 
the mmerahzed areas of Copp,.r mountain, Kennedy mountain 
and the Pnnceton coal-basin, was surveyed in greater detail 
and the position of th.s sheet was fixed on the skeleton triangula- 
tion. A map of the sur^•eyed mineral claims and land pre- 
emptions compiled by the L.r,.. and Works Department in 
Victoria was used as a base on which to plot the contour Unes and 
other features of the topography. Elevations were obtained bv 

Bndge by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company in their survev 
o a location hne down the Similkameen river. The elevation 
of the bndge across One-mile creek near its mouth was taken as 
the datum a„d is reckoned at 2,000 feet above sea level. A geo- 
logical and topographical map of this area on a scale of half a 

rompJled '" "^''^ ^ "''"'''"'■ '"'''^^' °^ '°° ^^^'' ^^' ^'"^ 
By far the greater part of the geological work is confined to the 
mineralized sections of the belt, viz.: the Roche River camp 
Copper and Kennedy mountains and the Tertiary coal-basin 
These were done m some detail, while the work on the remainder 
of the coun.ry was only such as could be done in connexion with 
the topography on a hunied trip to and from the Boundarv Line 
The pack trail from Princeton to the Boundarv Line follows the 
western side of the Similkameen river nearly ail the way. and as 
one can only ford this stream in extremely low water a long strip 
of several miles south of Combination camp on the east side of the 
over was not examined at all. and is only conjectured to be covered 
by recent volcanic rocks. 



-i^m&'^wm^mrMVr. ^^^^^'msstm?^ 



SIMILKAMEE.V DISTRICT, l!.c. 

Fossils cHTCur only at the north end of tho l.elt in tho T-nhrv 
sechnu-nt. and at the south end in an area of Cretaceons ro;;:s 
so that ,t has been lonnd nnpossihie to refer the roeks oecurri,.. 
.the central j^rtion to any definite perio.l of linK-. Th. .Mea,.; 

later than the Tertiary sediments. 

In the Copi,er Mountain district, where a large hatholithie 
mas ol n,onzon,te has invaded a series of nKtamorphose.l s.d. 
rnen.ary rocks, the two varieties of rocks have l.een\.rouped , , 

,t""!; ""'^■•' ""r ^'^•"'"«'^-' -'-•■• ^'-«'> t>H- two are of li,,., v 
different age. The reason for doing this is that it has l,c..„ 
found nnp<,ss.ble to separate then, completelv in the field l\ 
ccpt ,n the canon of the Sinnlkanuen river, and where some 
cievelop„.ent work has been .lone on the c!ain,s. outcrops of rock- 
are not common an.l the igneous rock hol.ls manv isolated areas 
of the se<hmentary rock; as inclusions in its bodv, and their 

PCX t> the whole mo.mtan, is cut by a great manv dikes of 
xar> ng composition, besides being traversed bv manv slips 

u th the widespread mineralization, have wrought such profound 
changes in the rocks that it is now difficult in manv casis to sav 
\Miat tlieir original composition might have been' 

tnt^T"'^' "^"'' '■'''"'' ^"'■'^ ' '-''"' ^'"' «^'"ined, but owing 
to the absence of many of the prospectors, who might have acted 
as gUKles in the district, some were unavoidablv passed over 
On fc^v o these, however, has development work been carried 
to a depth of forty feet, and a majority of them have not been 
prospc.cted below the level of surface oxi.lation. Consequentlv 
many o the geological problems here encountered must remain 
unsolved lor the present, or until such time as development 
uork has progressed much further and the camp has reached the 
producing stage. 

After completing the work on Copper mountain, and defining 
the Jertiary coal basin, a short time was spent in a geological 
reconnaissance of Bear Creek camp and the platinum belt of rocks 
on he Tulameen river above Otter Flat, The importance of this 
field IS such that with Jie short time at my disposal at tlu. end of 
he season it was decided not to go into detail in anv one section 
but to go roughly over the whole ground with the x iew of makin^ 
a more detailed sur^-ey in the near future. 

161 r— 2 



.<- ,^^:V: 



>m-~ 



lO GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA. 

SiTIATION, I;TC. 

Till- town of Princeton, which was the Insc of op»Tatioiis for the 
seas<jn, lies in the anjjic formed by the junction of the Tulaineen 
river with the South Fork of the Similkanuen river, and is thirtv- 
one and a lialf miles in ;; direct Hne north of the International 
liouiidary Line. The nearest jx)int from here to which one can 
buy a railway ticket is I'enticton at the south end of Okanagan 
lake. I'enticton is joined to Princeton by seventv-five miles of 
good wagon road, over which a l)i weekly stage is o|)erated. 
Princeton can also be reached from Spence's bridge on the main 
line f f the Canadian Pacific railway. This latter route is 
about one hundred and twenty-five miles long, but has recently 
been shortened by the building of a branch line from SiRiices 
Bridge to Xicola lake, forty-five miks in length. A third rouie 
by which Princeton can be reached is o\er the old Hope trail 
across the mountains from Ho]X'. Hojie is distant about sixtv 
five miles, and the trail is merely a pack trail, which is not being 
much used at the present time, and is consequeiuly not kept in 
very good repair. This route is only used in the summer time 
from May to October, as the high altitude of the summit and the 
depth of snow make the trail impassable for horses during the 
winter months. 

Two separate lines of railway are projected and being built 
into the district. The \'ictoria, \'ancouver and Kastern railway 
is being carried through from Midway up the vSimilkanieen river 
and will eventually be extended tlirougli the Hope mountains 
and connected with \'ancouver. It is e.xixcled that the line will 
be built through to Princeton in the summer of 1907. The Can- 
adian Pacific railway has also had preliminary survexs made of a 
line southward from Nicola lake to Princeton and down through 
the valley of the Similkameen river. This will be an i xtension of 
the section of road already built ihrough to Xicola lake and con- 
nected with the main line at S,'eiiccs Pridge. The prospect of 
either or both of these, railways passing through the countrv has 
l)r(nij;lit the Siniilkanieen district more l)efore the notice of in- 
vestors and caiMlalists and given a certain impetus to claim 
owners and prospectors, which comes as a relief after tlie dulln.'ss 
of the few jireceding seasons. The country has many natund 
resources that have not been developed only on account of the 
lack of cheap transportation, and no future railway companv need 
fear a scarcity of freight. 

At present the Similkameen district above Iledlev is only 
traversed by one trunk wagon road, wliich follows the vallev of 



?'T 2%«fr.B7?tAS^ 'i^^SSa.Syi^llSSffm 



si.\iii.k.\.\ii:i:n i)i>.Tkn.r, ii,c. ,, 

tla. river up to Ott.r Flat a„.l then strik.s northward „, N,,,,! . 
lakc._ .ron, I'nnccto,, a ,Vw short l.ranclus to r.,n Ul.i,,,.,. 
crc.k CopiKT nuH.nta.n and m.rthwanl vp ()„. ,„il, , ,,k . 
wh.c irotn Ottcr Mat another branch, twdve miles in length' 
k-a.ls up to the mineral clai.ns at the hea.l of U,,, ,r,,i^' 
Over the rest of the district only a few pack trails lead to 
d.ffere„ ,K>,nts such as the Hop., trail, the Honndarv trails up 
he KcK.-he and I'asayton rivers, and a few others that have 
been opened up l.v pros.xclors owning cl.in.s in the nuneraiized 
areas that they lead to. The trail to the Ho.mdarv Line ln„n 
. nceton was the most useful one to us, as it runs .lirectlv 
hrough the belt rejwrted on from north to south. This K- >ves 
he Hope trad, near the mouth of Nine n.ile creek, an.l aseend- 
n K the steep hdls.de, south of Whipsaw creek, follows .he trend 
of the nver at an elevation of about fifteen hundred feet above 
It and at a d.sta.ice of a mile to a mile and a half back fro,„ it 
t only .lescen.ls to the river at the mouth of Copper creek' 
Icavmg ,t aga.n to cut off the wide bend occurring between thi^ 
aud the ntouth of the I'asavton river. At the n.outh of ,1,. 
Pasa.Mo,, the trad branches, each branch to cross the lioundarv 
L ne at ddlerent points, the one following the vallev of the I'asa. 
ton and the other that of the Roche river. 

Where there are no trails tlu ridges an.l su.nmits of the hills 
are oiten open enou,,h to affoul easy travelling on horseback- 
but ah the valleys an.l lower elevations in the belt surveve.l ar.' 
so heavtly ttmberci that it is often in,,K,ssible to get through 
^^th a packT.orse. an.l even diir.cult on fool witlun.t llrst eutlim. 
u trail. '^ 



Cm.matk 



The chmate o the Similkanuen .listrict about iTince,,,,, i. 
an excechngly pleasant one. Lying on the eastern si.U- of tlu- 
H..pe nu-untan. which catch „u-,eh of the moisture <lrif,i„. 
eastward >rom .:u Pacinc, it occupies part of th.- interior .Ir^ 
bd .,1 scut hen, liritish C.lnn.biu. Tlu- rainfall is verv li^ht 
and irngatton is necessarv in the latter part of the summer wher- 
ever fanmng ,s carried on. The extreme upwar.1 limit of agri- 
culture IS shghllv over three thousan.l feet aboNe sea level .md 
as the greater proportion of coun.rv lies above this level it will 
be rea.hlv un.lerstoo.i that the amount ..f cultivable lan.l is not 
very large, and is confine.! to the lower benches of the vallexs 

anrl to the lertiarv depression about th- <o n' I'-i fn 

Above tliis level, t.,o. the plateau is subject to more or less'severc 
1G17— 2t 



'- <;i "I.iK.ICAI. srKVI;V iiF C.WAhK. 

Mitnuur liosN. ;,ii.l (\(ii in tlu' l.mcr Kwls c,f Hi,, district otilv 
111. iri..iill,s.,f (iilvaiid .\iii;ust can he .■.mnt..l (in with ,inv .l.^ivi- 
-.1 cvrt.initN In Ik inc in.ni in.Ms. IW' suil is cvirvwluTi- very 
KixmI an.l yi.I-Is , Mclkiit . i.,ps. Some whuut and otlu-r ,vals 
aiv Kn.uii, hut llu- n.-.st ot ilir farnurs arc omt.tit inin'lv witli 
l!i>- prM,l,uti(,n nf vc>;iiai,U.s f„r tluir own and lor local consurnp 
tion. Small Iniits. such as strawlH-rrics, raspberries, currants 
and uoMsc h, rries are easilv cidtivated. Mr. Mmiter lias also 
siuci sMullv -roun apples, and is experinientiii- in plnms. cherries 
and pears, hm th,. pear tries ,ire still f.o small to jud^c whether 
they will he sMccessinl or not. I-arther down the vallev the 
climatic cunditions h.come more snit,d)le lor iVuil raising and 
at Kennu-os all tiese Iniils, as well as j^rrapes, are j;rown st-c- 
ce^sinlK . 

Slock raisin- is carried on to a certain extent. I.nt the winters 
are loo S.A ere and the area of land on v hich cattle could feed too 
limiled lo make this industry \-cr\ Retieral. 

i am indebted to Mr. Hufjh Hunter, minin- recorder at I'rincc- 
Ion. for the followin- notes on n.eteoroloKy lor the vear i.,<,4:— 

.Mean summer temperature <<7 ■<)(}' 

Mian winter temperature, December to 

^I;"-'-!' 3,^.2v 

Highest tempenituie ,o,° An-. 4tli 

Lowest temiRralure __,-.-• j,-^,," .^^i, ' 

Precii)'tation - 

Rain.. . . _ • , 

• • 7 7 iiicIk s. 

I'lrst snowfall to remain i^.p. ,,,t,i, ,,;„, 

Snow disappears from valleys Ajml i,,th, i9.,4. 




IllSTiiRV AND l)EVi;i.(ir'Ml:.\T. 

f'laory. I'vcr since the >ear i,S6o, when placer golii was first 
discovered on the Siniilkameen river, above Princeton, by a 
Kovernmenl prospecting parly under Mr. Allison, mining and 
prospecting has been going on continuouslv to a greater or less 
extent np to the j.resent time. A year or two after this dis- 
coxerv riost of the white miners who were working on this 
stream and the Tulameen river were drawn awav to the Cariboo 
countr\- bv the great excitement following the disco\cry of 
Williams and Lightning creeks, and onlv a few Chinese were 
left. These continued to work the old localities without making 






M.Mii k.\mi;i:n distkii. r. i! c 

anv atu.npt .„ .lison.r „.« oms .mnl tlu- .arlv .i,!,,!.,, .,„.„ 
a nun,.Hr of win.. ,„i,u.rs rHnnK-.l, a„,i an iu.u-.Ll a.-.u 

nmuak. I,.. .I.sc.n.rv ,„ coarse ...M ,.„ C.ranit.. cu.k, i„ 
I8M,,. caus..l cnusuhrM. .xci.i.nuit an.l n.v.,ll.,l i„ ,lu- 1,1...., 
n.sl, ,„ Uu. sanu- vear that th. Sitnilk:.,,...,, has . .^vr m.,, ,;u„r 
M.sc.urus h.Klur up th- Tula„K...„ ,,„i,.Uv lollouv.l, a,„l ,1,.. 
n.aNn>m,n o.itp,,, was pn.l.al.lv read,..! i„ ,sm,, „„• Ik-Mr.s 
Kmn ,or that v.ar i„ ,ho u,H.r, of .h. Mini.,..,- of Mi,,.. u,„.. 
>..M..«,. (j„ ,hc. southern ,K,r,iou of ,h. ,iv..r. ,ho„,h plac.; 
Kol.1 .s loun.i as fa, as the. Kodu- river, ,h. „„., p,..„I,l,ive. 
l>ars were. f,nm,l hdow ,h. n.onth of Whip.nv en.k, u„ \Vh„. 
saw creek Hsdt aul on Nine- , nil., a tnl.ntarv of .he- lu,!, 
.-,hu« ue.ar<|rani,e. creek. The.c bars i,a^ ■ „.,w Ik.., wo.k,.! 
""' ^""' "<• I'l-^-'T n.iniu.r l,as In-cn att..,np,..,l „„ „k,„ „„- 
several years. 

The n.ost interesting, feature that has been .ievei.,,H.,l in con 
nexion w.th placer n-inin^ on the southern portion ..f ,i,.. 
S-nulkameennverandTuIameen river, is ,1,.. occurrence everv 
wlKTc <.l platuutm in ass..ciati.,n with the ,,..1.1, an.l in,i,...,I this 
dstnct has prove.1 te. he the n.ost proeluoive- of that ,ni„eral 
t ut has yet been chscovereel on the .North .\,n..riean con,i„..,„ 
Ir Dawson has estnnated that from ,,4,., to .,..., „„„,.,, „, 
patnunn were obtained in the dislri-t in ,8S; at a time when 
pacermnung was at its height, anel previous to that it was not 
cons,dere,l worth wh.le saving in the dean up. At the prese,.. 
nue pla«T m.mng is conf.ne.d to (^.ranite creek an.l the upper 
pa. of the lu!anu-en nver. an.l is carrie.l e,n bv o„lv a few 
wlntes and some China.nen. The annual ontpn. ..f platinum 
has„ow decreased to not more than f,.rtv to iif,^ ounces 
Ow„,« t.. the enornu.us rise in the price of platinu.n, however, i, 
s altogether hkdy that m the ensuing vear son.e. atten.pts will 
be rruule by nUereste.l parties to we.rk so.ne of the hi^he-r bench 
posus of gravel winch are known to carrv pla.n.un,. but 
"Inch necessuateel t..o large an outlay of ca,,ital to have- been 
worked bele>re. 

Lo.h mnu,,^ - Coincident with the increase of activiiv i„ placer 
mun,^ „, the early e-ighties was corresponding interest in the 
search for the source of these placers in the rock. C.pper .,re 
carrying some values in gold and silver, was .iiscovere.l at th..' 
inouth 01 Prielay creek, and also on the o,,posite side of the Sin.il- 
kameen, on what is ne.w known as Copper n.ountain. Two 
clam.s staked by Mr. .Ulison in i8,S; on the siele of the vallev 
opposite the n,outh of F^d^^• creek .ere Crown „anleel, and a 



u 



(;riii.iM,K\i, St Rvi V i)F cwAtiA, 






gfxxl (Kal of pr..siHvtin>,' Uv tumuHiiiK "is .lorn-, .\j>|..ir.titlv 
the ri'MiKs ol.taiti...! ,li,I „.,i ,„ .tifv the o.nti.iii,iti.,ii <.f the work 
an<ltheor.l„in«t,K, low ;,ra<le to pav tlie claims w.re al.ail- 
.lo.u.l shordv all.r. < .„ rri.h.v cr.ek, I,.,wcv.t, so„u- pros.H.ot- 
11.:; ali.l <hvi lopmetit work has larn carri. ■! on almost o.„l Jn„o,.sl v 
situe tlie vear i.S; „,, m the present tim.. ( ),„■ „i tl,,. Crst 
claitns loeite.1 the Vieloria -situate.l ahoi.t 4,., var.ls up the 
ere.klroniitsniotitli. wasniore,l,.vel,.[H,l than anv oilur ami 
some l.,ekels ,.<■ oeaulilu. >- .rnite ore .liseovere.l This was 
l""i'<l I" he of s .1, a hi,.;!, Krade that son.e of it was . ,rrie,l out 
<"i paek horses an.! shipp,,| to a smelter. T!,is .lairn is still 
he,.,;; luhl under the .lan.e of the Cla-lstone. l,ut the work .jene 
•'.. .1 .s onlv sueh ass,.ss„u.nt as is ,-eeessarv to prcNenI it f,om 
lapsiiij;. 

<M, CoptHT n.ounlain itself the l.^st known elaun, and with 

the e.xeep.ion of the - wo stake.l l,v Mr. Allison, in ,,s,s;. ,l„. earli.st 
""e neonle.l, is the .Su..set TLouRh copixr ore was known a.i.I 
d.seovered in this neiKhl.ourho.,,! I,v lameson, in .s.s.s uhile 
I'-.ppn.K m these monnlai..s. n., . laims were taken up ,.,„i| the 
d.scov.rv was reported .0 U .v Prown Prown stake.! the 
S....set e!a.,n. hut the clain. lapsed an.l was restak. ,1 ,,.ain in 
.;^..r., a>„! n. this vear the lust assessment w..rk was .lone on it 
J he lollowms >var s.m.e Uu ..r .. dozen elaims uere stake.l' 
">-.sll> a.ljoiniuK the Sunset, an.l in .S.^s options were taketi 
.... so.ne 01 ,|,ese l,v eastern capitalists. These n.en, however 
were ,hseo..,a,,..,| ),v the .'irtlcullKs ..f t.ansportati,,,, an,! ..llow.-.i 
the properties t.) drop. 

In .S.,S an.l ,S,,, tia.re was a ^reat inllux .,f prospeet.,rs t.. 
th.s .hslnet an.! t!,- I ulan.e.n a.,.l ,!,e ren,ai,.i„. a.vas of C-.p.K.r 
">"»"ta,„, kenne,lv n.ountain, hVidav ereek a,..l Comhinati.m 
ea...p w.re stake.l. \-,.i«fs ea.np. o,. Wolf cr.^ek, was also 
hKuted at th,s time. I.-ro.n .s.^S to „,.o interest in Copper 
".ounta.n an.l nei,hh.,uri.>, properties was k..en, and ,nuch 
"."..ev was ex,)en.le,l in prospeelinj; .liiTennt elaims. Options 
were K.ven ..„ several clai.ns aroun.l. ineluding the Sunset 
to eastern eapitalists. hut owini; to .lilTerences with the claim' 
owners and for other reasons the .,p,ions were a.ain .In.ppe.l 
At the same t.me the ok! Copj>er >h,untain wa.,„n roa.l was built 
l).v .everal ol the claim owners. 

After .9.K, verv little work, outside of the necessarv assess. 
...ent w.,rk. was .lone until n,o,. At Xoigfs ca.np, however a 
few „,en were kept st,.a,lils- at work on the elaims. an.l in ,„„, 
the present waj;.,n n,a.l fr.,m Princeton ^vas built !,v Mr VnU 
with s.mie assistance from the jroveniiiient. 



Z' i2W!v.:>Jl«rStf»i^.^ t««55lri-i«^1l«gi'-. 



MMII.K\Mi;i.N I.ISIKK I. lie. ,, 

III u^>S tlu^ firiti^h O.lutnhia C..|)|Kr 0.ri.|.;n v i.,.,k npii,.,,, 
on ton or twi-lvi- claims aroim.l and im-liidi-i^- tlif .SiniMt ,ii,| 
work was carrii.l on lor al,o,it .l.-vm luotillis A .liain..M.I .Irill 
was l,rou«lil in an-l nu.cl. .I.vp .Irillin- ,l„w. I,ul iIk' hmiIi^ uirc 
not made' known to tin- pnMic. 

Ilyhuulic winn,^. In iS.,, sunu^ prosjMrlin- and MirvvM,!- 
was donu on the east sMc „f iIk- Sinnlkain.vn riv.r. al) .vv I'ritKv*" 
ton, hv i)artii.s assrK-Jatcvl ;vit!i W. C\ M>l),„i w,il. , vi.w 

to workin;,' sonic of ll.o 1k-..Jus stnloliin- I.aok lr..n. ll,.. riv.r 
l<v livdrai'lic nutiiods. Cold was found mi all llu- t.st pits l„il 
thf l).(l rock was not suiricic.ntlv lii;;|, al)ovr (li,. l.v.l o|' ll,. 
stream to alTonI a ko.«I I, imp. 1 his, wiili the lad iliat i ditch 
seven miles in length, to carrv water Inmi the Similk.im.en riv.r 
on to the -round, wonl.l o.dv tjive a h. ad ..I iir, let, |,,re.,l th. 
promoters to abandon their prr)i.cl. 

In iS.)S the .\n«l() American Coinpanv was lornie.l l,v C'apt un 
S. 1. Sc-ott. with the ol.ject of workini; some Kroimd sitn.tt.d on 
t le west side o| lu- Similkanieen river, jnst .i.ovc the mo „ h of 
Whipsaw crc.k. .\ ditch tw„ miles in length l,rouL;ht w.it.r 
from ^\ hipsaw creek, : n<l under a head of ., jo feet tliis was s„p 
phed to two \„, , Mo.iitors at the foot of the heiich. .Shii.i,,., 
was carried on for , period of ei-ht davs, when it was fouiul th.it 
the l)e.lr<K.k here also was too low to atTonl a dmni^ lor th. t.iil 
m>{s. and tli. y wcn^ constantlv hlockinR the chann, I and forciu- 
the water Lack over the Hat. The expense of ktepin;; the slniee 
Ijo.xes Ire. Iron, the tailings, an.l th.. fuel that iH.lroek w.ts not 
reache.l in the pit, caus..,| the companv to ahan.lon th.- work 
and K<) into li(|nidation. 

The most snecessfnl attempt at hvdranlicin^ was that under- 
taken l)v Mr. W. J. Waterm.in in i.s.,;; on some ,i;round al),.ut 
three miles south of Princeton. This ground had formerlv vielded 
from S5 ,n, to S,o.,,o to the hand, and had been worked both bv 
whites and Chinese. Water w.is obtain.d from a sprin.,- and - : nred 
in a reservoir immediately above the bench to be worked. A s.lf 
acting j;ate to the r.'servoir was built with the intention of usin- 
the water as a bucking hydraulic. The water was stored at ni-ht 
behind an old beaxcr dam abo\e the reservior. and during the <?av 
was allowed to run into the reservoir which it filled two or three 
times an hour. The gate uted automaticallv ami let out a head 
of about 2.o,« miners inches for seven or eight minutes. When 
the reservoir was empty the gate closed, and the boulders, etc., 
m the pit were cleared up and the ground got readv for the next 
run. In Xovcmhcr, iS.jj. a partial clean up gave res-.d)-; of fr.-ini 
iwenty-five to thirty-five cents jxr cubic vard of ground moved 



««arj.'f^''; ", 



16 



•I'H'ir.ICAI. SIRVI V i.F CANADA. 



nn.! ,.....! . x,k.k.s. TIu. .uxt v.ar tlu- pn.rxrtv ua> m.M i.. ,|„. 
Urnul,.,,, Forks MniinK ;u..l n.v..|,.p„„.nt O. ' SU,u- vvaior was 
brouKl.i fr„n. St.v.nson cr.-.k an.l a s,„all „„.„i,.,r .nMall..,| 

"'"Y -'' """'"•' '■ '"■"' T"- "ms w.rt nu.l.. i„ ,s.,,S u.ul ,1,,. 

..S..I.-- ..I.ta.iu.i «a^. I.M ,„ li,u,„ cnfs |k r c.l.ic var.l of Kn.uu.l 
>n..v..|. Ilu. a..u.„„t of wat.r was not .ull.ck.nt to „mv. tl... 
heavy wash, un.l trial surv.vs w.r. n... to hri,,;. n.or. wat.r fro,,, 
..inf,n,K. creek. The a,..o,„,l of work..l,l,- ,Mon,..l. however 
was not lar«e enon^'h to w,.rrant th. ev,K„sf of sueh a .liteh an.l 
till work was (lrop|K(l 

The river l.ars at I'-t- ,nonlh of Fri-lav ereek lilUen n,i|. s above 
1 nneeto,, w re at o,,,' li.nr fonn.l ,o !„■ verv rich ll.re a trial 
pn W..S also o,x„..,| „p. A .lileh on., l.ah' .nil.- in Kn^Ml, was ,|„» 
at.d a .ort p,,H- lin.. with a .nonitor install.,!. Work w..s earri.-,l 
"" '"' ■ • "1 one s..ason an.l in ih, n.x. spring; wh.n o,H.rations 

were a,„ to he comtnen-.-.l i, was fonu.l Ih.., ||,.. whole .litch 
systen. ha.l ..een washed .,wav into the stre..n.. Tl,.- cla,ni<, 
were then ahamioiie.l an.! have lain i.llc- ever sinee. 

nn tlu- I nla„,..„ riNer the .-arli.-s. att.-,npt at hvlranliein^' was 
ma.le l.y a uro,,,, of Vancouver nien wlu. l.nilt a Ihnne a.i.I .litch 
ro,n I-.a«Ic creel: will, the intention of recovering tlu- platinn,„ 
iron, a bench a .short .listanc. h.-low this ,,oin», Th.- h.„ch was 
s,nall an.l was soon wash.-.! o,„, will, what resnits was not asi-er- 
lain..,. 

"■' C.nmite creek, fro,,, which prol.al.h ,nor.- ,.lac.-r „oI.l was 

recover.-,! than ,„v other part of the Si,nilka,„een district, so,ne 

.end, da.n.s w.-rc op -n..,! up ,,v Captain Scott. F^.hert Stevenson 

H- Iv. Hogg a,.i others. \ (]„,ne four n,il..s in length was lai.l 

and work began ,,n the Swan clain, an.l at its up,H-r en.l The 

gold h.re ,s very coarse an.l probabls ,„„ch was recovered, bnt 

.he co„,pany .s ,„rtly at„ r w.-nt into Ii.,„i,lalion and the court is 

s.,d to have ck-ane,l np ..hont ?,„«. ,m. fro.n the sluice Ik.xcs 

-Mr. Hogg afterwards worke,! a s,nall ,.it four niik-s below the 

■.HUHI, of r ran.te creek an.l w„shcd out the gravel fron, an old 

... ,1 chann, I of the 1 ula,neen ru er. It is believed to Lave paid 

or the season, but th- pit was fdlcl up with wash fron, the 

i.i"unta,n side the next sprin.r, and ,. . .-r reo[x„ed. 

/W/„„,--I,oring operations for h.;„ite began in ,,o,, and 

ment of the Pnnceton coal basin. The \ermilion Fork, .^^.,i„g 
and Dcvelo,„m„t Company is the largest holder of coal clai.ns 
a.id . has sunk s,x bore holes to test its properties. Two otl„ rs 
ha%e been sunk by HIakemore and on,- I,v Sharp; and with :;c- 



lii^^-'-'umiftiir" ■•}^m^'^,^^^imjm;^^^mm^ 



SIMII,K\MI'.I:n DIsrHICT, III' 
. p's Ih.iv hul. .ill lin, I,,,, I ,„ ,^ ,,, ,,„, , ., , 

•"""•^•••""^'"""^' '■•— i.n,K..::::.;"Ui;;:;.: 



. x-l>.i..M.^ Sharp's l...... ,,.,.,„„,„ ,,..„.„,,,„„,., ,,,^ 



•n.c n.sl «....|.,Kic.al „,„!, ,|,„u..,„ ,h, ...„.„.,„ ,K.,„ , ,„. 

^.nMlka„u...n ... .vhid. ... havv a,.v r.vor.l ,ha. .„ M 
.a.unnan. lM.,...,.|.,,,sM...h.. North A„u.ru.a,. Monrularv O.. 
"'^^"'" ""^ ^""^ -in .1.0 u:ns .h„. , „ 

... ........ ,.v the, W..,..«i.a, Survey IVpar ^ " s ' 

^ "" P';""'^'^'"" "f .h..au.h.,r. F„ this s.irv.v Mr UuJ' 

;,":;V"^^"" "'^' •"" -'■"< -1"-'-' - '.v .w.. r.,.„..s K 

. .. ur,, ,M.U. was ..V the ....| „..p. ,,ail, enfri,,,. ,1... h.l, . 
Uh.psnv .nrk a.u! f.,lknvi„K <l..wn the vallev .,f the ^i„„lk , 
."-" nver. Mis s..,„her.. route lav .h.vv,. the vall.v .. ,, .. 
HcKhe nver to the ,„o„,h of ,|,.. I-asayton, fro.,, whieh ,..i.,t 
struck aeross the .iivi.le to the Ashnolu river l.v a trail 1,1 
s.nce a,,a..,.o.u..,. Mis work was of a preli..,i.,.rv eharae.er, a 
m ...akes ,.o „,..„t.o„ whatever to Me ,„i„,n.Is of eeo.,o,„ie 
vah.e occ..rn„« ... ,h.. I„.„. a„.| r. fers o„|v ,,n.,lv ,., ,„. p,, " 
'...""'K on the s.mth. r„ portio,, of ,|,, Si,„ilkan,. .„ that w .s ■ 
>.at f„„e carrie-I „„ l.y Cl.i„a,...„, a.i.i ,o the .Hefr,. .ue of 
hK.i.te beds on the Ti.!a...ee.. river. 

In .M77 nr. (,. M. J,,vvso„ sp.„t the seas,.., i„ a Keoloeie-.l 
exploratto,. of the souther,, interior of Uritish roh.,„,,ia an,l ...u. 

the Terr "'"t"T'' "' ' "" ""'^ ^^^''- »->< '-" ''-"«'- 
the lerfary has... abo,.t Princeto.. a,.,I ,iow„ the Si.„ilka,.,ee,. 

nver, o., pre.,s..Iv the sa„>e .ours., as that followe.l l.v Mr Hai.er 

man. A .letail..! rcjx.rt of his observations is f..,nd i„ the 

Report of ,.ro«r.ss, ,S;, ;,s. r,win, to the dise. .,i, . nVh 

pacers ,n ,88,, on Granite creek an,l tl... Tula.n.,,, river Or 

Daws,,,, asa.n visited the .listrict in ,SSS, h„t i„ ,|,.. sh-.rt sum' 

n.ary winch appears in the- An.u.al Rej,ort of that aar he ,leals 

enfrely with the Tnlameen river and i;s tributaries. This was 

intilth' '"7-\";"'^' ">' ^f"- ^^-"'"^i'^^'' •'^-vey Department 
unt.I the work of th.s vear. 

Columbta exam.ned and re,v,rted on the Princeto., and Copper 
Mounta.n d.stnct, and went as far ,.p as the head of one of the 
branches of the Roche ri^-er. Mr. Robertson', ohser^^ations were 
coni.ned ent.rely to the mineral claims in the different camps 



msmmm;^^^ 



IS 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA. 



MMl lu .naki.s nr, ri-fcrcnce to the general geology of the district 
In ..)<>t, the International Boundarv Commission Survey com- 
nunce.! the construction of a topographic map of a five mile belt 
Ivu.g aloMK the Houndarv Line. [)r. R. A. Dalv was attached to 
tins as LanaduiM geologist to the conmiis.sion , and his ol.serva- 
l.ons. extenduig over this belt, have added much to our knowledge 
"1 tlu ;,'eologv of the southern border of the Similkan.een district 
I snii; (he t..,K,«n.phic map so constructed ay a base the bound- 
■m.s .,) ,1,,. ,li(Tcrenl geolofi:ical formations met with have been 
.1. cMt..l, Iv skctche.l in ai'd other geuloKical data added 



I'llVSI (IK.M'MV. 

^Ih. South Sumlkanueu .hstrict hes in a part of uhal has been 
'•■' 1<<I 'V IM. (,. M I,aws.,„ the great interior plateau of Hritish 
^oluudna. In the southern part of the Similkameen district 
Ix.wever, u partially loses the chief characteristics of a plateau' 
which are so well exemplified in the region to the north of this 
.hstnct. a.,.1 whKh gave the author of the name the reasons for 
ca l.ng u such, and ,t here becomes gradually n.ore .nountainous 
until It finally merges into the high rugge.l and snowcovered 
peaks of the Cascade range to the south of the International 
Boun.lary Lme. In the northern part of the belt surveyed, and 
"- IlK' ommtry „, the north of the Similkameen and Tulameen 
rivers the plateau features become more pronounce.l and the 
ruggedness ot a mountain region is lost. In looking southward 
over ,t towards the Nicola lake from some of the higher poim 
the eye appears to travel over a gently undulating surface show'- 
.n a succession , : rounded and generally wooded hills, and no- 
where any sharp and rugged peaks or ain banks of snow 

Above Princeton the southern portion of the Similkameen 
rncr (lows in an almost north and south curse until it forks 
some twenty-five miles south of here. The main branch or 
asa^ton river continues in the same course up to and across 
lu' I ouiuhu.^ I.me. while the west branch or Roche river come 
iron, the southwest. The name Roche river wxs origina^^ 
;;'"v ;.I'Plud t.. a small branch of this stream flowing into it 
-n 1... south about twelve miles above the mouth of tl 
.savtou, but m recent years it has become customary to refer 
. t Is irger stream as the Rocl-e river, while in reality it should 
n tain its original name of South Similkameen * 

The valley of the Roche river is wide and flat, and filled with 
gravel and wash, which frequently forms terraces on either sidl 

..l,:j'i!,l'r::P^^^l^r'.^''ev.r. h.vB decided .h.t , he So,.,h Simiik^n,™. .«»» y^ 



SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICT, B.C. , 

Of the river. These- terraces are often cut thnnigh In- the st r. an. 
for,n.„g steep cut banks of fifty or one hundred feet in Iu.kIh 
Ihe gradient of the stream is comparatively I.nv, and the L. 
..f the valley generally .s1o,k- back easily to a heigh, „i al,„n, 
2.-K, feet above the river. The I'asaytun river, however ueen 
l.K'S a nmch narrower valley and the stream is nuah n..-. n.,.„l 
About a mile below the junction of the two streams the s„„tl, 
cm ,x.rt.o„ of the Snnilkameen river enters a deep and „.,„„u 
canon, throt.gh which it Hows for a distance of al.on, eiul,,..,, 
"Hcs, or as far as the mouth of Whipsaw creek. 1 he „adu ,„ 
of Ins part of the stream is verv steep, being a, leas. ,,„, . 
Icet to the mile and very probably more. As tlu lower ,„„ 
tions o. the valley are usua'ly very precipitous and carved .,„( 
ol the sohd rock, gravel benches rarely occur, and it is se!.l..,n 
ix,ssible for wash to find anv lodgment on its sides II,.. h. d 
of the stream is filled with large boul.lers, ronnde.I as well ,. 
angular, and for these several reasons i, is im,H,ssibIe lu „„',| 
tins section of the stream e.xcept in the late summer wlu,, ,|„ 
water is very low. 

liclowtiie mouth of Whipsaw creek the stream enters the l..u 
shallow lertiary c.al basin, and the change in character is verv 
abrupt. Here the grade becomes slightly easier though still verv 
steej, and the banks of the valley are usuallv composed of unenn 
sohdated material, and only occasionallv are there e.xposed 
sections of the lignite-bearing measures. 

The tributaries of the southern portion of the Similkameen 
river are few an<l insignificant, the most important being Whin 
saw creek and Copper creek, both flowing in from the west and 
each entering the main stream by deep and narrow- vallevs 
he ormer heads with one of the branches of the .Skagit, and 
ts vaHey is followed from one end to the other bv the old trail 
from Hope to Princeton. 

Both the Roche and the Pasayton rivers draw tluir waters 

ron, the high range of mountains lying on and to the south of ,|,.. 

nternational Boundary Line, their branches interlockin, wi,h 

those of the Skagit .Irainage and the Methow, the latter llovvin, 

directly southward into the Columbia river 

The basin occupied bv these two streams is enclosed between 
tvso forks ol the Cascade range of mountains, which, running up 
northward through the State of V\-ashington, divides just south of 
the lioundarv Line. The western or tn.e Casca.les. or Ho.ameen 
range, lorms the chvide between the Roche and Skagit rivers an.l 
ruM.s up northward to tlu' west of the Tulameen. ...nd i. Uure 
locally known as the Hope mountains; while the eastern Case-ades 



20 



GEOLOGICAL SIRVICY OF CANADA. 



or Okanagan range- strikes slightly east of north and lies to the 
est of the I'asayton an.l Ashnola rivers. The western of these 
l"o forks IS the more persistent and .Cronger range and its 
sunnnus show verv lit.le din.inntion in devation or' ggl 
. rehef H,von., the lin.i.s of t. ,in,ilkan,een sheet to tlf north, 
Ihe eastern fork. i:owever, is not so ,,ersistent or well defined 
ts su.nm.ts at the boundary Line son-elinus attain an elevation of 
«.5CK. feet. InU these gradnally dwindle down, .nitil north of the 
Snn.Ikameen nver its highest points are little n.ore than 7,00., 
leei and the whole range gradnall-. sinks into and hecon,es a part 
of the great Interior platean. 

Tlie elevation „' the '..wn of I'ri.Kvlon. as ded.a-ed Iron, in 
s n.nK.nta levels carried throngh fron, Sp.-kane l.v the engineers 
"' • H- \K-tor,a. Vanconver and Kastern railwav is 3.„o above 
sea level, wlnle that of the townsite of Allison two .niles below is 

^:n7:7 u'\ '• '-*■'---" ^-"> «P->ces Bridge bvCa 
'Ulun ae.nc ka.lway e, ,.neers. There appears ,. be a disere 

of het«ora.lwaysurvevs. The levels of the Canadian PaeiHc 
Kad.ay survey were nsed in obtaining the elevations for the 
tojxjgraphic map. 

Taking Princeton, which lies in a shallow depression occupied 
>> rertmry sedimentary rocks, as the central p^int in the curv 
formed bv the two forks nf tl„. r 1 . 

there is nm.r V ""^' "* ^''^ Cascade range of mountains, 
there .s a marked rise „, slope of the lines radiating to the west 

pe cepUMe'f' n"'' '''" «""'^" '" '"^^ "-*'' ^^ ^""-^ - 

below tlur ? T- "'""■ '''' "^'"^ '■^'^^' '-'" '-^^ --" ^'own 
belovv the unit of mtense alpine erosion, and now aptx^ar as 

lc^at>on tovyards the crcun.ferenee, ()„lv towards the circum 

;ru/v ,"'"'^;" '"^ ^"""'""^ ^"•-" -' ^'evation g ::r 

Menu > of 1 rmceton these are nsndlv well wooded with snruce 
P;.H-. •>alsam and tan.arac. This rounded outline an<l 4 dS 
' , onn whde m the n,ain due to er. on, is also in part thf ^su 
" tl.e hlhng ,„ ot old irregularities „. the surface b • the TertTarv 

n.J lows winch still coyer such a large proportion of ;:e^:;; 
I' be t. Glacal action, both the action of erosion as well as 

^.:^^ ;:^!r""' "^'' '-" "^-^ -'---' ^" -^-^-^ th; 

oceur%i7'''"';r "^ '"""' <l--lopnK.nt in the topographv 
CO r The southern portion of the Sinnlkan.een river from the 
•asa>ton to the n.outh of U'hipsaw creek occupies a deep 



1 



siMii,K.\Mi;i:\ ni^TKicT, ii.c. 

narrow V shape! vallev indicativ. of a co.npara.iulv r.c..,, 
upl.ft, wh.ch ..nparts to t„is portion .„■ u.e L.un i . J, 
.?our arul power o. erosion. Tl... ^•a!lc,v of the Tula,„ee„ riv l 
too, above Otter creek, as well as ,.a,,v of its tributaries is ve 
narrow and steep, showing that the drainaije has „,„ b.en verv 
long ,n operation since the chan,v in elevation 

Nutnbers „f terraces and .leposits of gravel also occur a, 
various elevations on the sides of the valle^s to a height „f , ,:„, 
eet above sea level. The higher ones of these appear ,n h ve 
been onned when the whole vallev was filled with water up ,., 
hcs^. levels, wlnle others nearer the river an.l lower are .he n m,1, 
o. the action o, the present streams in cutting d,.w„ ,Iuir l„ d. 
As a rule the lughe, ones onlv now occur as small reinuarn. of 
once more e.xtens.ve terraces, formed in the period imm, .n ,te!v 
following on the .hsappcarance of the Cordilkran glae.er ,„d 
which have smc ,een reduced in .:,, by the ordinarv atmos 
P ne agencies ,. erosion. These are the most appa"re„, ev i 
denies of comi)araliveI>- recent clianges of level 

:ompanying these changes of level, and cither a direct ivMdt 

nem or o. the blocking of ancient channels bv recent volcanic 

ma k-; ".'V'"" ".'T.^'""^"'? ^-''-'S" <" 'irainage. The mos, 
ma ked instance ol this is the deep vallev of Smelter lake and 
\ oh creek, now occupied bv a stream inconsistent with the sive 

01 he valley. It seems probable that this vallev of Wolf cnek 
with Its continuation through Smelter lake oncc'carried a .nc ,t 
part o the drainage of the southern portion of the Similkanuen 
river, but that the filling up of parts of its channel bv recen 
volcanic flows, or the same uplift which caused the southern 
portion of the Sunilkameen river to cut its <.eep canon, also 

orcc.l the stream into its present roundabout course through 
the Jeriary basin about Princeton. All the streams entering 
this vallev irom the south, above and including the Coldwater 

wat rfdis or have been forced to cut deep cafions dou n ,o ,he 
level ol the trunk vallev. 



(■i..\ci.vnci.\-. 



Dnring the glacial period the great Cordilleran glacier covered 
all the summits north of the Houndarv Li„e in this bell The 
conditions we now find existing as a re.sult of this glaciation tend 
to show that the glacier was losing its great powe r of erosion and 
was rather eJepositing its load of debris. This is evidenced bv the 
small number of grooved and stri.Tt,,! ro,-i. evt- ', ■ ■. • 



22 



GEdl.Or.ICAI. SLRVEV np CANAI-A. 



n.ot.„n,K.c.s, and by tin- cl.ick an.I wi.ksprca.l dcpoM, of rock 
c^^tn.fs o„ ilu. summits of H,. hills as wdl as i„ the vllk" 
l>omf stna. wen- noted on the southern part of the belt on the 

r;.s."?T T""' ^'•" '"'""^^'"-" -"-- ^'-'■- 

are pract, alh vah.eless as an ntdi.ation of the general trend of 

tl e n.an, body o, the ice, for the direction of do; uo.d.l he 

. Utrelv m ]„ence,l by the conrse of the ^■alIev. All striae, ^t 1 

:::::z:7r'"' '''''■'''"''- "-'"*"- ar:;ir;, 

h t 1 . , ? '""'""^' "' " •"^•^■•^'•^- '"" '>>rections, such as 

tl.at covered by the Kamloops tnap sheet of Dr. Dauson the 
average „t n,any readings ol,tai„ed on points that are uninill :, 

ourse 01 the upper portion of the ie. shev, ; but as the 'sheet 
-- be.ng reported on lies entireK in the ^allevof the so h 
ern portton o, the Sitniikanuc n ri^er and .Is trib, taries all 
str:at.ons would be u.ore or less inihu-need In tlis v^ ,,;;' 
.cnlarlv as the trend of the vallev o.dv diverges a f^LJZ 
rum what has been reckoned to be the genend trend of he , 
sheet over the Interior Plateau. 

By far the greater proj.ortion of dritt is unn,oditle<l nnterial 
derived iron, the breaking <lown of rocks u.thin a sho u^'' 

::;!;;':: i"^^ '''' •"^' '- -^ ^^■"'-'^--' ^'- ^^ '^^' 

oni. uhire ,t has been cut into and was!,ed axav- bv streams 

ha exposures of the sol„i rock can be foun.l. It al o , i^ar 

o the topographv an appearance of fairlv nn.ure ero i m gS 

to the nils in the belt a rounded and graded outii ^ Xh h o 

chamctenst,c a leature of the uhole Interior Plateau 

I rospect.ng for n,ine.-al deposits beco.nes. on account of th • 
■nantle o> dn.t, n.ore dimcult here than in a region "eo t Ic- 
srength o. glacial erosion had been greater. Th; Ik., "rowU 
oi t,n,ber too adds to the diitlculties. The tree line in this bel 1 
appro.xnnatelv ; ck« feet above sea level, and as it is o.dv a L 

t;:.r:;i;ht :;:r:f-.^""^'^^- "™' '-•-'- ^- —'^ 



Ai-.RtCI-I.TtKAr, I.AXI), 

Stratitled deposits of san<! and clay are cut into and exposed a 
hort distance below the tnouth of the Roche ri^ er, Thc^e Tm,; 
o ... e been laid down in still water along the southern aa' of a 

the glacer probabl^• for a while discharge.l southward ac s 
the d.^■.de .nto the Skagit river, but aft., this had bee., su Ik 



I 

f 



4 
I 



SIM1I.K.\MEI;.\ DISTRICT, li.c. 

ently lowcrcl to prevent a„ outl.t in this .lir.ction ■, I.ko w.^ 

On lu St II furtluT retreat of the slaeier this uater w.„ id „n , 
bahly find a„ outlet iionhward and eastward doun the . f 

the bnnilLameen river. Terraces of gravel arl s „„ . 
-...HsproI.a,.,,eo,ae.npora,K..,s.it;;,he'd:;;::it n^^^^ 

s h Lk s a,e ■ e,puntl> i„und adherin, to the sid> s of ih. uruu 

:^i I";'""" "'""• ''''' "' ^''^ ^'^^"'''-' '''!--'- < " 

m^o^ ■ 7 't ""'"'■ ''' ''"''-'' ^'^■"'^■"■"^ farther nor, h war. . 
.— U.,lakeon..n,werefornu.d.,H„,heu.a^ 

Ti.c \VhiU; Silt deposits, .hieh are so well shown on .ikamon, 
^ kc. and winch mark a i.eriod near the Hn.d disappearan.: U 
Sbcer, are not represented i„ „,. district, th. .,. 1 , 

depression ,n the belt, .,„no f.a above sea lever is i i 
tl.J nghest level at which .hese deposits are fo , i . .^ ;: 

Hanging valle>s have alre;uh been referr.d t. •' 

the valley of Wolf creek and on i^r^X^n. ^rrT' "" 
ri^er, bnt whether these can be attrCJtLS" 
o a .pate recent nphft and tilting o/ certain ^eii ^ s i " ^ 
the present time impossible to sa'-. '" 

The thick covering of glaci d' drift, though s„n,ewh a of , 
hiiK ranee to the speedy development of tl,; miner ^^L 
o the district, mus, be reckoned as one of its assets in t 

produced a considerable extent of excellent farm and V m ,.g 
''"Kl- file open, rolling hills all around the town of |-ri„r 
- covere,! with l.a ,tiful bunch grass, and s!;; t C:; 
cattle and horses throughout the summer season ', ' 

the cHjUon of farm land IS almost en,.rX'lnn:y::r 
W of uie bimilkameen and rulameen rivers aiul then tribu- 
taries. A lew pre emptions have been taken up on the Imd r 
slopes o. the vallevs where the surface is not too " cp b 
Ixnit at winch fanning is carried ..n can be nut t^', f 



Solid (;i.:ologv. 

Though much that follows has already b^en fullv deal 
epea d r.^^ '""""^^>' ^^'■""^ ^^ '0o6, it must I 
'11 .,K naming ol ilie igneous rock of Copper 



t with 
)e 



24 



••i:i>I.o<.|c.\I, MRVI.V (IF CAWI.A. 



mo. „,a,n, H.,,!, o, tlu-s. uvr. .uvcssuat.,! afur a n.icroscopic 
stu.lv of the. ..unuTous n.k sa.np,.. .olR-c-t..,. i„ „,. distrLt 

CnoKMcal work on tl.o soutlun, p.rt.on of ,1,, Similkamccn 
bc.o,nK.s yorv dillicMlt on account of ,„. ,rca, variJt „.,"," 
plcx.tv o> „,. rock foruntioMs. as also o„ account of t "' ck-' 
ncss an, wulesprca.! co^crin, of .Irif,. i>,n,onic, volcanic uul 
c. nn.n.arv rocks arc all present, covering, a period f 
>alxo.oK. to later Terti arv tin.es. Kossi.s oca.r in , Ir 
hg-ntc l.a.n, about Princeton, and also i„ the Cretaceou " d 
......s o, the Roche river, .,nt the remaining se.Iin.en tv 

ocks -hu,estone. ar,illi,e , ,d quart.itc -are c^itl.er „„f^ ^ 

^■rous or have iHcn so ba.llv crushed ,.s to .lestrov anv ^n- 

ant o, an.n.al h.e that thee ever con,ai,.ed. Contacts l.etZ, 

he ,^,e,.ns and sed.n.enta. y rocks are rarelv exposed, so t . .^ 

t -s d.lUcnl and vcrv often imposshle to estahlish .eolo.Mc. 

H.t ol tra.elhn. an vwhere except on trails that I.ne been 

"t m j.rospectors throngh the hnsh. This Later difticultv 

ou-.ver does not hold in the northern half, .here o e ui 

usualvobta.n access to anv part, whether there is a trail or , ." 

a^cs!':.;:::;;;;;;;;.:-:' "*"■ -" '"-^ ^"'■'-^■"- - -lative 

(1) Ciliiciiil and rrcciil i/r/ioff/f. 

(2) Post Oligoccnc - 

a,J°!Za:°"""""""' "-'«»■■«.-*„„,,„., 

(,s) Oliiioccnc — 

Scdhnentary, consisting of sandstones, shales, ckns with 
seams of lignite. 

(4) Cretaceous — 

Argillaceous sandstones, grits, conglonierat'es and slates 
is) Po^-t I'alaozoic — 

Rcnn.el granodiorite; n.onzonite of Co,,per n.o.intain 
(6) I'ii/,co:oic — 

I.in.estone, quartzite and argillitc of Copper mountain 
(.reel, and spotted, schists, talc and graphite schists, mica 
and hornblende schists, with some limestone and siliceous 



raUo:ou- The oldest rocks in the district are the Roche River 
schists, winch cover an area about the i.inction of the RocL 
nver w„h the Pasavton. This area extends fron, the cXn 



SIMILKAMEEN DISTRICT, B.C 



I 

r 



25 

below the- junction of the two sfr^^o t 
Wver. and to a point ^i/ht Tni, ^ ..Tj^C'r V'^ ""T"' 
contact on the latter strean, being th e 1. tlu . ,h """"''"" 

Ki-nmn] granodiorite, while on t , '*" "''•^'^' "'f"si'>" o. 

with a band of gneis whl, , ' "'^" " *^ '" -""-' 

of the Hennnel ^anoili.: :" "n J ^Z "T "V""' " ""^'- 
overlaid by recent volcanie r. '"'" "'^' =^''''*'^ ^'^'• 

^-n. the rLr uAl'Zj^ ^l^ '''''' ;''-"- "-^ 

-" t... south are ."icaceous^nr;;.;^,^ ■;:;;;.;" /;'--'- 

ver> s.hceous and beeo,„i„g ...dssic and 11 f^"l"'"tlv 

crystallnu lin.est.Mu The nf.r,. ' '"*^ """"^ ^^'"'^ "^ 

''V -Mreen s,.t^ j::; s^- x;f :■ r VT^-'^ 

"' graphitic and talc schists the laU ^ . ■ """"'' '""'^'- 

^rahzed and t.versed Uy .J^inJi^^^ "^^^^T I'"" 

found „n,x,ssible to determine the age of the^roek. , "" 

some n.end,ers of the series hnve -t I , 1 T ' '""' ""•"k1> 

the Archaean of the Shuswap !^. h'^T, """"''"""■ '" 
are more probably highly n::tan:;;i^r^r ;;:;-' -"'- 

ar "; :r i;;;.r r::r" ^'''''- -- a::J: ,,,,, 

bodies in the S pan '"of T'c'''' "''' ^''""^ "^ ^'^ "- 
They also form a hilu- ah r ' ^^^' "°""^''''" ^'^trict. 

in. the Si.nil.ar^Sef rv^^r^t:1.'r' "''- 

rse^rrr '^r ^ r ^" -—--;-::; 

Copper mounUi unt, t^ev l7ov ;rV"^'^"^^" ^"^^ «^ 
They appear to resen.b e o.newha X C h' r'^r'^' ^■"''^''^"'^■^■ 
Kamloops district T'.e^ hn v^ ^''''' '"''■'" "^ th e 

'^y later intru^ion" o ig ecu 'r" J '"' ^"^*'-^' '^'^^-^"^ 
has been destroved ha. H ' / ''' '"""'^ °^ '^'^' beds 

islands or "roo :1^ ^ •' t^.^r ^l^'"*^"''^ ""'>^ '''^'^^ - 
li"Ksto.,e is verv often whi ''"f ""'^""^ ">«'^'^-'* "^ rock. The 

and quartzites are trv'Mr1/"''-'f ''""'• ^"^ ^^^' -«'"'^- 

have taken on a cr^;::^^: ^ ^ a ^ ^d^ '\ 'T ^^^" 
niorphism tliev hive ,mH.r„ addition to the meta- 

tion .Mt,ch o hese r ' T '"'"' ^''"'^'"""^ ^"^ breccia 
volcanicnows and uc.r Thlrr ^ '^"'"">' '^°^-"' '^^• 

by eruptive masses or^'^ttLt^.^LX^a^thr""" 
are on v remnants of n,,^, ^ • P '* that remam 

a great-part j^^ul^rBS S::;:i: ^"""^"'^ ^'^^^ --^ 
river, the g.^i;?::^';,:^^^";: ^^r^^*^ °^ ''- ^-^^-" 

phase of the Kenunel grano^iori ^and h " '""""" ''"'^' ' 
s -uouioriie, and the monzonite of Copper 



26 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA. 



mountain. The Retnmtl granodiorite is cut across bv the Pasay- 
ton river, and extends northward from the Boundary Line for a 
.hstance of four miles to its contact with (he mica seliists. Sinth 
"f It IS a larK'e area of Lower Cretaceous roeks. Ihe tvpical rocic 
"I (his area is eom|K)se(l of hornhiende. hiotite, (|uar(z and ortlio 
elasi- feldspar. ! )n (he same strike as tile Remmel ^ranodiorile 
on tile kodie river is a band of gneiss about two miles wide 
I Ins is not so coarsely crystalline and is so much more basic in com- 
l)osilion as to be almost a diorite, but it is jjossible that the two 
may have been jjroduced from the same marina. 

'Ihe country rock of Copper mountain is a nionzonite, |K-tro- 
«rai)lncally very similar to tie mofzonite of the Uossland dis 
tnct. Its texture is jjranitic. The predominant feldspar is 
plaRiwlase. generally idiomorphie. and .wurriiiK in elongated 
crystals. .Much orthodase feldspar also occurs. The ferro- 
magnesian minerals are biotite an.l augite, in varying proix)r 
iK.ns. I'sually (he augite is in excess of the biotite. Hornblende 
also occurs. biK never in as great a proportion as either the augite 
or biotite. and probably only as an alteration of the augite. Iron 
or co])jK'r sulphides a|)pear to be always constituents of the mass 
and occur as idiomorphie crystals disseminated through the body 
of the rock. 

This monzonite is best develoi)ed in the south and east of 
Copixr mountain, where it has not been affected bv mineralizers 
or altered by later igneous intrusions. In places where this is 
m contact with some remnants of the older sedimentaries a 
gneissic structure has been induced in it. To the centre and 
north It has been fractured and brecciated, and is now traversed 
by many little veinlets of calcite, magnetite and feldspar. The 
rock has also become finer in grain, and large biotites are often 
develoiK-d in the zone of fracture. The contact between the 
monzonite and the sedimentaries is very irregular wherever it 
is exp*)sed. It is rarel.y sharply defined, and in many cases no 
dehnite boundary can be assigned to the igneous rock. The 
monzonite occurs under so many different phaser. a.id is cut by 
so many different types of dikes with which it becomes intimately 
mixed, that it is often difficult in the field to separate the different 
intrusions. 

c>.7,„vo«.v.- Lower Cretaceous rocks cover a wide area in the 
southwest corner of the district. Thcv appear on the Pa.sayton 
river, uist north of the Boundary Line, and striking about 330° 
across the Roche river, about six .niles above the junction of that 
stream with the Pasayton. At both these places they are seen 
to overhe the eruptive rocks. The beds consist of hard sand- 



SIMII.KAMEEN DISTRICT, It.C. „ 

sl.MifS an.l Krits, inl..rh.<l<k.<l will. I.laik and rtd aiKilla.-cnus 
slatis, all of which appiar to havi^ sufTirid n.ucli stri s. u„,i pn.s 
sure, for the anglos of the dip art- now all high, (...nK usnallv 
about 50°. ( )i, tlu. R,K-h.- rixir the hot torn bed is a conglonierat.- 
which rests dir.clh on the gneiss to the north of it. The actu il 
contact is masked b> drift, but from the evidence r.f the ixl.bles 
contaim.l in the conglo.ncrate the latter apfx-ars to rest uncn 
forniablv on (lie iKiu.M.s rock, an.l the material for the eon 
glomerate was derived from the breaking down of the igneous 
r<Hk. Dr. Dale has .siin.ated thai a (hickliess of 1, ,,,-«. 'e, t 
of arkose sandstones .done was deiK,siled in this down wafiK.I 
Cntaceous sea, so that the conditions for their (le,M,sition nmst 
have covered a relatively long period of tiiue. 

The begimiing of the lertiarv times witnessed some colossal 
disturbances in this ix.rlioii of the .arth's crust, v hidi was latei 
acc.nipanied by nuich volcanic activity. The Cretaceous strat . 
were folded and upheaved to form the rugged conditions obtain 
ing in the Hozameen range, and it is probable that the same 
causes were res[)onsible for tli.. fracturing and tissuring of the 
monzonite of Copinr mountain. If this is so the beginning of 
the formation of the Copper mountain ore br.dies must have 
dated from this ])eriod of disturbance. 

This period of disturbance and mountain building must have 
terminated, or was at least temporarilv arrested, about the close 
of the Kocene iK-riod, and a short jK-rio.! of comparative quiescence 
followed, during which the lignite bearing sediments were de- 
posited in a local sea of transgression. Manv oscillations of 
level of this sea are necessary at this period to account for the 
formation of the different seams of lignite, and the final uplift 
was followed by a prolonged period of tremendous volcanic 
activity, during which the greater part of the countrv south of 
I'rinceton was covered by volcanic rock. 

<:'/ig..cf«r.--These sedimentary rocks alone in the northern part 
of the district coxer an area of nearly fifty square miles, the basin 
being fourteen miles long with a variable width of from three to 
five and a half miles. They consist of thick beds of sandstone 
with clay, shales and several .scams of lignite. The base of the 
series appears to be a very coarse-grained sandstone containing 
many large rounded white feldspars in a matrix of calcareous 
material. This rests on the eastern side of the basin, on the 
Copper Mountain series of rocks, while on nearlv all other boun 
danes the sediments dip under the more recent volcanic rocks 
which he as sheets on them. In parts also these volcanics hav^ 
thrust themselves through the sediments and now appear as 



?M 



• iKOI.OGICAI. SIfRVKV <>r CANAl 



isl.iiwls III ihi- oldir r<Kk-<. The strata do not now lie liori/oiilally, 
but have Ir-cii tiltid at l..w aiii;ks. iiiakini; an irriKular siriis of 
folds. Sf)tiie faults also <kcui 

Many drill holts have hctn hond iti this Tirtiar\ l.asin in 
search of lignitf seams, and with sonic ko<"I rtsult<,. Most of 
them, however, were put down at or luur the ed«e of the river, 
and only one near the western e.l^je of the basin. Hy the kinri 
iiess of Mr ICniest Watennan, nianaKer of the Vermilion Forks 
Mining and Development Coinpinv, eopies of the reeonis of these 
• Irills have been obtained. Ihese have iliselosed the Ihiekcsl 
linnile seams to be in the vieinitv of the town of I'rineeton, when 
a bed over eighteen feet in thiekness was siruek at a depth of 
fortv nine feet below the surfaee. Ih.' hole in whieh this seam 
was found was sunk near the bridge over the Similkameen river 
to a depth of jSo feet. In this hole lijr„ite seams, ax^regalinR 
thirty live feet seven inches, were crossed in the first ninety feet, 
while the rest was in shales and sandstones. 
The following is a record of this drill hole:— 



Matcrml. 



iliii-kncs.H. 



iJi'ptli. 



<iri»vel 

Sliale 

(!osl 

Sandstoiii' 

Coal 

Clav 

Coal 

.Shale 

C^arbona'-f'ous shale 

Clay 

(^arbonafooii.s sliiilc 

Sanditono 

Fire rlav 

Coal...: 

Shaly roal 

Shale 

Coal 

Clay 

Coal 

Shaly roal 

Coal 

Clay, shale, eir 

SanfL«*tonp 

Clay, shalp, et^' 

Sandfltone 

Clay, shale, et ■ 



I t 

-'I 

I 

II 
ti 
1 
l.H 
.i 
4 



I 



1 
1 
1 

3fi 

31 
7(1 
44 

8 



li 

■J 

10 

5i 

1 

It 

r 
I 

2 
1 
I) 

.s 

4 

ft 

2 I 


6 
6 



4S 



SI 



227 

i 280 



Hi 



AxKregatn nt rioan roal. :U feot .3 im-lir 



SIMII.KAMKKN' tilSTRICT, H C. 



-•'; 



Oiif and a li.ilf iiiilis fiirtlur up ilif Siiiiilk:.tiiii ii ii\tr llu- 
ft.lliirtiiit; MftiiMi was ohtaiiud ol" tin- iiuasuris hv tin W rmiliun 
I'orlvs Mining and I )i\i lupiiuiit Cunipany, in l)i.n' Imlf Nu. .• ; 



Mull nul. 



Tllirklil-IIH. 



l>M'll< 



II. 

••'^■y 17 

Sl,»l.. is 

^'Jlll.I oMr , , 1 

•■"lul M, 

Sitn<l->T*itll' 1 

Ch.v 

( 'ai'iMiiia 111.^ hIuiIi' ;( 

I '..111 I 

Cl.iv 7 

•■..al ,'.;., ,1 

SiiU'I-tMrif '7 

Slial.' I 

fliiv I'. 

s\,!x\v ; . . ; ,1 

S:iiiil.,liilli. ., 17 

.-^Iml- I 

.*^iiiii|.ninf 41 

(';w1miii:i< icius «li:i|f .( 

(■.,.il .-, 

*'arlH»iiii' i-uUN .nhalc ;t 

Slial.- .t 

*,m\ I 

< 'lay 

^liali-* ali<l ^alt<l..|(iiir ■»;{ 

<J.)al :( 

San.l.^irmi' ami sliali' W, 

Ciiai It 

^liali" anil .•iadiir-loMO II 



n 
II 


-'III 


ii 


Jl.i 


II 

1 


L'tll 



.A^rKri'^ati- of cli'an cnal, 1 1 fct I tl iiirlics 



Till' (li'C'pi'St hole bond in tin- whok- coal hasin was lilaktinon-'s 
No. :;, which was sunk to a (lc|)th (if i,(kk) kit at a point on the 
Siniilkanuiii rivir, about two niilis above I'riiu-eton. 1 he 
following,' r.ronl shows the thickness and the depth at wliieh 
eacli coal seam was cut. Tlie only workable seam was struck 
at 676 feel. This was found to I)e ten feet seven inches tliick, 
with a clay jjarting of si.\ inches near the middle of it : 

Ili'l'tl.. rliickn.'v,< of (iHil scam. 

\t g,s feet I inch. 

95 " 4 inches 1 

.^95 " ''^ " :; inches. 

404 " u " 2 

427 " :: " 8 ■• 

475 " 6 •' 6 ■• 



V' 



i.riii.iM.K \i. SI Kvi;v (>F c.waha. 



i.r.'M.ti' 



At 47.) uci (1 iiiclu" 



s< >x 


'■ <> 


5:<) 


4 


>:<) 


" S 


676 


" ,s 


(h)4 


' f, 


»H»I) 


' \ 


7')^ 


' ■» 



4 iiiilus. 



I'l li it 7 lllllns. 

I iiu'li 

I Inol ; iiu'lus, 

r II 

Ii'IjI lliitkius> III' in.il ill I ,„^, iVit. till. 1 11 iVcl 

Imiiii iiiil.> ii|, till- Siiiiilk.iiiufii livii a Kutr Iml,, Mink in a 
(l.I)tli ..r ..^7 f..,.|, niih u.iit llin.i.-li tun l\. I In,, imlu^ nl ii,,', 
"llilf ,1 iltill hoi mil III.- snulll ill.; nl 111, I,:, sin ;i| Aslllinla. 
wlii.li |..ii,ii:il..| to a .Uptli of ;i,> |\..|. j;a\v ii.i uorkal.l. s. .iiiis 
at all, anil milv a iVw liaii.l-. n| what has Ikiii oaIk-,1 in ih,. i.ioi,| 
"ioal\- shale" 

A liorc linl,. was also .Irlllid luar the wvstiTll cd.;.' of (he hasiii, 
uluiv tin- s.dinuiits (lip un.j.r (lit- vokMiik-s. aii.l iioi far from 
when, ihtrc is an .MiliTop of coal four iV.t thiik Tin- (kptli of 
the h.ilf is ,S6? f.vi, ami in that .lisiaiicv sivitili-.n -..•ams of .nil 
«.r.' lilt ihi-oii;;!, ^viili an aKj{ri'i;ati- tliicl, iiiss of liftv and a half 
lift, of which ihi iliiik.st siam was iiiiu- f.ii. 

I'roiii a stnilv of thisc ivoi.ls it w.itikl appear that most, 
thotiKh not all, of the w.irkahle seams are within vx) feet of tin' 
surface, It must l,e noted, however, that no prosixctiiiK l,v 
drilling; has Ikcii done norlli of the Similkaiiiecii river. 

The coal hasin uiidoul.l.dtv extends some distance north of 
the Siniilkanueii river and heyond the limits of the sheet mai)ped, 
for ..nlcrops .>f li-nile and sandstone were f.uiiid at the nuiuth 
ot .Simnmrs creek. Two miks up this creek the saiulstones are 
well .Apnse.l on the hanks of th.' stream, and are here f.nind to 
l)e overlaid hv recent v.ilcanic rocks. Farther north thcv appear 
to dip below the surface, but it is very likelv that other areas of 
thes.- c.al measures iiiav be disovered outcrojipinL; in places 
bet w. in here and Nicola lake. 

^ I.iijnite outcn.ps ill many places, both on the Similkameeii an.l 
lulameen rivers, also on .Summers creek, nr.)mlev creek and .111 
Nine i.iile creek. At the latter pl.iee a cut in the' bank made bv 
the stream disck)ses a bed lifteen feet in thickness of fairlv ckan 
li^'iiite, with tiv.' verv thin partinirs of dav, and all restin- on 
white clav. 

A selected sample ; rom the hig eishteeiiToot seam at Princeton, 
worked l)y the \erniilion Forks .Minin- and Devek.pmeiU Com- 



SIMIl K WII I \ lUMKIi I , II C. 



\l 



|iaii\ , was Mill Id Mr IIdITiimiiii, ui' ilic Cii iili)i;i(.'.il Sin \i \ litput- 
nuiit. Afiir aiial\/iiiK it lit tfniiid u i.> !«• a li^niii . hut uiu ni 
Uif U-tlir ilasH. Aiiahsis l)\ last cokinu xavr |li< t.>lli.v, im; 
psiilt : 



HxurDsoipii' wall r 
\'<)lalilf iDiiiliiisiilili III. 111! r 
li\i(l larhiiii 
Ash 



Hi I 7 !>■ ■ 11 111 

4 -^ 



Ci>ki . |Hr iillt .;(, :s 

Cliarai., ni" inki-, piihiriiKiit ; inluiir nl' isli. linnMiisli xillnw- 

I.asi vcar Mr. I,;'.wr«iHv I-aiiilM' >>( ilii- I k parlimiit v..is alil.- 
ti) iiiritlatf ttusf lii;iiiif hids with Ihr Culihvalir KHilip iil Niidla 
laki , and similar luds mi tin- Iluvsilh ri\rr As a n suit ni' liis 
iii\(sli^,Mli()iis tlu\ have all hmi rihrnd In nli^iK-riic a,i;c, and 
ar«' similar In iln' Ann /mi luds ni Colniadn. 

'ri'oiijili l' l)i<ls art- ol' till- saini- a^i- as llu' Culdwaltr xroiii) 
of tlu' Nit' , i,iiiilr\ , in wliii-li oual also oiviirs, ilurc is a dilTi r 
iiiii in llu' qiialitv nl' llif fiit I I'oiitaiiuil in taili. 1 In- Xiiula 
loal is a triK' liitumiiioiis, wliinas tliis is a li},'liiti'. Ilii- loniur, 
aKu. is rmisidirahly hi^jliir in h\cd I'arlion and lnu( i in w.ih r, 
wliik- llii- It 1(1 rail is i 447. as aKainsI 1 ms oi llu- I'riiutlmi 
coal. 

Sonu' of till' hills of till- I'riiii'ilon loal liasin arc oiil\ ;ii a 
l)rimar\ sta^'f of foriiiation, and tlii\- slill show llif brown, wo.,dy 
lihri' of the slijjhtly allirtd vij;flahli' riniains. .Miu-h n tiiiitc also 
(Ki'iirs in thrin. Sonu- also h i\i- hiin compIiliK diviro\id hv 
coinhnstion, and it is to tlif cmnbiislion of an tindi; 1\ iim hcl of 
lij;niU' that Dr. Dawson attrihiiUil tin- nulaniorphisin and colour 
of the rocks at the Wrinilion hliifTs. 

l'o^t(>lii^«ciHi . Till- solid rocks of this a^jc arc all of volcanic 
orijjin I lu y have a \ir\ wide distrihiilimi and prove iliit this 
part of the countr\- was the scene of tremendous \olcaiiic acli\ilv 
duriiij,' that ])eriod. Their area iiiiisl lia\e heeii coiisiderahlv 
iliniinished durinj,' the i;lacial period, so Ihat their |)resenl distri- 
l)uli()n cannot he taken as indicative of their ori<^'iiial extent. 
Detaclied anas of thtse rocks, too small to he niai)ped. are often 
found cappinj; the old.r rocks, and these must at one time have 
heeii continuous with the lars;er areas, hut have heeli separated 
from them hy erosion. An instance is on record where these 
\olcanic rocks have acted as a shield to the iinderlvinj;; rocks, 
preveiitinj; the erosive action of tjlacial ice from reniovins; the 



Wik- \- -im?r.i-4?^%. 



i^yp^ 



lif^-i. 



I 



-/>K' 



I 



ILICAI. 



~ri;\i;v i .i- canaha. 



'l'^--;-ni.oM.,l Mutcrul ,.f ilKs. .ni.Ic-.lvi,,!,^ rocks. a„.l „„|v ...i,,,, 
so lar as to ,v„u,vo tlu- ovirlyinK V(,!ca„ic slu-ct : so tluU now 
tlKr.- ,s a .n,Kh greater tl.irk.Kss of .kcompos.-.l rock tluin is 
.N..a Iv lonnd i„ „„,..|, .,,,,i,u,l regions, an.l a local cn.li.io,, 
•as iHvn ,,n,.l„c.-,l which rcscnIWcs ,hc „n.L;laciatc.I regions of 
the .Southern Slatts. 

Tlusc volcanics arc the voiinncst rocks in the .lislrict for thcv 
arc seen on th.. Tulaincc .. river and also on One mile- creek and 
S.n.uners creek to rest dircctlv on tlu^ rocks of the li.,M,ite scries 
""''"■ '"'^'"■^■^" nver the stream cuts ihrou^di l,e.ls of dav 
shale a.Hl sandstone ..erlai.l l,v these volcanics for a <lislancJ 
"I ^'t hast two an,l a half n,iles. The schists of the Roche river 
are overlaid l,^ these volcanics to the north, east an,! west and 
tluv also overlie the Copper Mou.Uain series on tlu north and 
«est. Ihev consist of rhNoi:tes and trachvtes, an.lesites. ha .alt 
tnhs and hreccias. The s,„face lavas are often amv^laloidal' 
the vesicles heiUK Ulie.l with chert. chalced.Miv or zeolites Some 
aj^ales aiul soni o,,al w.n .on„d in the volcanic ar.a east of the 
Coldjvater rixir. 

Some of these dikes enttin;, Uie Copper Mountain rock appear 
I" he contemporaneous with these xokanic n,cks, and in some 
way connected with them 



"Klv ni'l'O.SITS. 

In the Koch.- Kivcr district the mineralized area is cnllncl to 
a iHlt ol soil talc, chloritic and hornhlen.iic schists. Ivim; ahout 
the junction of th.e Roche with the I'asavton river.' The ore 
K,dies are of two classes ,,, small gold hearing fissure veins: 
(2) lar-cr he.ldcd veins, coppcrT,earin-. The lirst are usuallv 
finartz veins from three inches to four feet in wi.lth, cutting 
across the strike of the schists, and .lippiuK at angles from f«r 
to -K. . Ihey carry, hesides Kokl. hornite. tetrah.drite chaico 
pvnte ami ,,vrite. Svlvanite was also reported to occur hut an 
assav ol a selected sample of one of the ^•eins supposed to carrv 
this mineral j^ave no trace of tellurium 

The secoml class contains larger ore hodics. Ivins parallel to 
the strike Ol the schists. These mav he either ..uartz or min- 
eralized hands m the schists. These carrv some jjold and the 
copper and iron sulphi<les. and the hi,,diest values arc in cop,xr 
"niv two claims have heen crown .ranted an.l surveved, and 
the amount ol development work done on all of them is not 
suthcient to prove the ore hodics, or test their permanence The 



MMn.K.\Nii:icN niMKicr. ii.c. 



survived il.iiiiis an- l\w I'.isavtou and iIk Sailor laik. on 
both llicsc arc- small fissurfs. On tin- l'a-,avt.)ii is a li.Mnv i,,nr 
iiKliis wide Ironi which samples were taken h. test l',.r ttlluridts. 
and on the Sailor jack a lissnre two feet wide cutting across a 
hornliiende vi iiist. 

rile greatest amoinit of work has been done on ih.- Red Star 
and Anaconda claims. On these there is a belt of soft talc and 
ihlorilic schist about 4.,o feel wide, slriki'iir ;,,„i ,lij,|,ii,^r 

verticallv, and Ivini,' between mica sell- • ii a,,,'.,;:, t.) \,l 
traversed b\ a fanlt iilane, aloni; which inn.iu-.: ,,.id 1, n-s of 
white felds|)ar and (piart/ have been foni. , , ;d wlii, h u. •, Hist 
worked for their ^ohl content. On devi;--.i: -ii ;•., \ , j„ ,aii 
iiib. the talc schist, which i)ro\ed to be hii;hl\ niineraii. i il uilli 
copijcr carbonates, melaconite and cu|)riti', and uliicli was farlli. r 
on replaced bv bornite and chalcopvrite. Alonj; with iIksc uere 
IJyrite and arseiiopyrite, siderite an<l some lilende. A shaft li.is 
been smik in the Immel to a depth of si\t\ feet, but this had to 
be ab.indoned on account of the noxious -asi s. Some nali\c 
copper occurs as sheets in little slips and fault plants in the si hist. 
Several other claims have been staked in this district, and 
though there are some indications of hi.ijh ;,'ra(K ore occiurni.,', 
the onlv work done on them h.is been just that which is suiruienl 
to enable the owners to hold their claims. 

Copper motmtain was reporied on 1\- Mr. W. I, Robertson, 
the provincial mineralogist, in Au-us, i,,oi, and his report 
api)ears in the Animal Report of the .Minister of Mines for lirilish 
Columbia of that year. Since then development work has been 
extended farther to the easlwanl. but little more has been done 
in the iieiKlibourhood of the river. In speakini; of Co])per Moim 
laiti camj) and Copper .MotnUain ore bodies, it will be distinct Iv 
understood that Keimedy monntain will be included as well, 
for no distinction can be drawn between the two. 

'Hie camp includes about one htmdied and thirtv crown >;ranted 
mineral claims, covering an area live miles long from cast to west. 
and about four miles from north to south. Combination camj) 
lies to the south of Copper mountain, but the ore bodies are 
much the same in character. 

The conntrv rock is a batholithic mass of igneous rock of verv 
variable composition. It was found exceedingly difhcnlt to 
classify it in the lield on account of this variableness, hrom one 
part of the held to the other ii .ippeared to range from an atigite 
svenite to a gabbro, and as a mean between these two it was 
called in the Summarv Report a diorite. On microscopic study. 
however, it was found to be a monzonite, verv similar to the 



1. j» .•i.A/^iJ.. dy- 



^mi^k 



H 



GKoI.Or.ICAl. SIKVICV ciF CANADA. 



'a 



I 



"lonzon.t. „l tlK. Kosslan.I district. This has i.uru.hd into an.l 
ahnost .nt.rcly <l,«.stc,l the ..I.Ict ovcrlving scdinunts-hn,.- 
st«.Ks arstllitcs an.l <,uart^.tc■s s„ that these onlv „ow an.xar 
as ...elusions or ren,.,ants in the ij,meous n.elc. To the north 
an.l west .t is o^erIai,i by recent volca.iic rocks. Along the 
sonthen. and caster., bonier of the .ni.urahzci area the tv„icil 
rock .s b,.s, developed. Here, too, a gneissie striictnre is son.e- 
..nes observed or the dark n.inerals occur in segreKated areas, 
lo the north tlie rock beconus more feldsputhic, an.l is cnt bv 
narrow ve.ns ol pink feldspar, ,,uartz and .na^netite 

Both the sedin,e.Us a.ui the iK.ieous r(H:k are i.iti.natelv .nixed 
with and cnt by a ...altitude of later .hkes of difTerent ages 
whose seciuence cannot vet be perfectlv worked out. These 
dikes have a K^.i^ral ..orth and south tre.,,1 and are (luartz 
porphvry, rhyolite, granite porphyrv. diabase an.l augite nor- 
pl.vnte. ol which the first nictioned are a,,parentlv the ...ost 
lre<iuent. ihe whole series, except the latir dikes, is traversal 
1..V a set of fracture and fat.lt ,,la..es n.n.iing i„ a., ahnosc east 
and west direetio.i. 

Two classes of ore bo.lies have bee-.. ,„ade out (.) thos<. occur- 
nuK at or near the contact of ,1,. sedi.nents with a,, ig.ieous n.ck 
an.l (.M th..se occurring in tl ,ues uf fracture Hoth are of i 
verv uKlehuite character, without well .lehne.l boun.ian.s 
I'.xan.ples ol t!,e first class are fo.nul at the sontheru en.l of Copper 
•"""'""a"', au.l on the west si.le .,f the Sin,ilka„,een river h. 
tins class .,re is fre.|.,e,.tlv f.nuul at the eouta.. of the n.onzonile 
with a luneston.., which niav be verv nu.ch allere.l. The ore here 
.^^e.undlv occurs as intiltratiou, iu the sn.all fracture plan.s uith 
wh.ch ,he rock is traverse.l. The fissures cnt both th, „neous 
as well as the sc.lnneiUary n.cks. a.ul the ■u.tallic sulphides are 
'"""•' "' '"'"'• •'"« onlv iu the neighbo„rhoo.l of the contact 
Ihe h.su,vs have been lllle.l with seco.ularv calcite, which acts 
as the ga.,gue of the sulphi.les. Rhyolite an.l .piart. porphvrv 
<l.kes cut boiu kiu.is of rocks, an.l have apparentiv bee., inject.-.l 
alter the Irac.nring an.l fissuring had cease.l, for tliev are .,ot 
the.nsehvs an-cctcl bv any such .lynan.ic actio.,. The in.n,.U..I 
rock al.me has been fissured to-all.,w ..f the ll.nv of n.iueralize.l 
solut,.,ns. Tl.es.. later .likes are not in the.uselves .nineralize.l 
="Kl do .,ot appear t., have ha.l a.ivthiug t,. do with the f..nnati..n 
Ol the .,re bo.lies. In the Jennie Silk..,a., clain, a highlv n,i„- 
eral.z..d .l.abase dike, which cuts an altere.l sedi„,e„tarv rock 
aln.iK w,tl, a .|uartz porphyry, see.ns t.. be resp.,„sible for the 
lonnat,,,,, of ,h.. .,r,.. The ,ui.,e.-als .,ccurri.,g i., this class arc 
chalcpvnte, pvrih, pvrrhoti.e, bornite au.l calcife. with a little 




t> 



'"^'f<--%i.T^ 



', ' 



:-'-^j 



S1.M1I.KAMEI;\- DISTklCT, 



II. C. 



,VS 



niagmtilc. H,.rnitc. is «.„n,H,l to tlu- soutlurn porti,,,, of il,.. 
camp. TiK. Sunset, Ihku H. C.anl.ur. K„„u. Silknu.n .„„l 
Copper I-arin claims aro e.xamplis of tliis class. 

The scco.ul class of ore bo.ji.s occurs in the centre of Cupiur 
niountan, an.l eastward across olf creek. I„ this ea.e tlu ore 
occupi,.s a /one of fracturing, which strikes about north -,s e ist 
It often happens that the co.mtrv rock has been hreccia'te.l and 
the fragments cemented together l,v calcile. or il is traversed 
by 1 network of small calcite veins with a north 7V^ east trend 
These hssures are most abundant about the nii.ldle of the camp 
am die out to the north antl south. Thev sonutimes attain a 
wulth of two feet, but are more often o.dv an inch or two Thev 
cut all the rocks except some of the- later dikes. These .likes 
strike at right angles to the course of the fissures, cultin<r off tlu- 
ore bodies. an<l they do not seem to have been affected hy anv 
strains or stresses, except those which are conse(|uem ,m the 
coolmg ot the igneous bodv. I'vrile, chalcopvrite, mispickel 
an< magnetite occur in the calcite veins. .Magnetite sonutimes 
replaces the calcite altogellKr in the veins, an.l forms the .'nrnie 
lor the other minerals. In the n..rthen, part of the .lislrict the 
httle hssures are nil.,| „i,h f,!,lspar, .,„artz or magne.il,. ,o ,he 
entire exclusion of ealcilr. The Triangle !•■ radio,,, k.d I-aHe 
Ada li., Fnsco. .\nnie I., an.l other claims running east and west 
across the middle of the lamp are ixamples of Uiis class 

Besides being concentra.ed in llu- /ones of fracture the coppiT 
ami iron sulplmk-s appear often to be original constituents .,f 
the mon/onite, for thev appear as idiomorphie c.xslals di-..emi^ 
nated through il wilhoni anv connexion will, ,.ael, mlur an.l 
until a great .leal more .levelopn,.,, i. ,l„„e on tlu- clain,s 

It will be .linieuh to give a correct ni th.. lor„,.„i„„ „f 

the o,e bodies. At present n.,1 n,a„\ ...,, have Ik,,, ..xplure.l 
to a .leptl, l.nver than the li,„i, „f s,„-|ace ..xi.latio,,. S,.,n.- deep 
<lrilhng ha.l 1hv„ ,lone on the l>,i,„...ss .Mav and ..llur eiain,s 
dunng ,005. but the result-, have never JHrn n,ad, known 
_ It will be n..ted that one of the fealur.s ,,f U,,.,. ,,re <le,.osils 
IS the assoeiati.Mi .if the oxi.l.s .,f iron will, il,.- sulphi.U-s urv 
netite occurring with pv,-iu. an.l chaleopvrit. a l,.:,t„re whid, 
has been c.nsi.lered by tl,.. best an!h.,rities to !>e characteristic 
of cntael deposits, and particularlv th, contact n{ li„,..Mone 
or a calcareous rock with an ign.ons on.-. Th„ugii it is ,„,l alwMs 
possible .m Coppc-r mountain to discover an ign.'ous rock an.l 
hmest.nie contact, wherever this ass.K-iation of oxi.les an.l sul- 
phides occurs, it uiust not alwavs be infern.l that ih.rr ncNvr 
was one there. Many small areas of limestone and argillite have 



IjM^Wa 



•■,<' 



<;i:nI.(ir,H..\I. SIKVI V ok CANADA. 



I 



iHcn L.tiiul as inclusions in tlu' inonzonitc, a lad wl.icli .'ucs t„ 
prove that luloa- tlio intrusion of tlie „,o„zoniti- tlic countrv 
rock .,1 Copper ni.nuitain was u sv.linuntar^ one coniposotl of 
tlusc- roc-l^s, and tl.at the nionzonite had eaten into and assin.i- 
li'tc-d all h-.t the renuKints that n.nv exist. It is probable liou- 
v-er, tha< the molten nuiKma never aetnallv reached the ^nrlace 
but cooled at depth under ijreat pressure into a rock of Rranitic 
t.xlnre while the sedi.nents still overlay it. lixtensive er<,Mon 
...ay have lolloued, Koi>ig so far as to remove almost entireiv 
the overlymK se.hments. and brin^ini^ to the surface the •i.tru ,i^e 
granular monzonite an.l its ,mce deep seated contact., with the 
se.hnunts; or even «oinff beyond this so that the se.li.n.nts were 
removed entirely ard the monzonite exposed, but still showin-^ 
the elTect of conta-* .wetamorphism. It would be ,,remature 
at the present sta^e of development of the can,,, to sav how nmch 
ol the nunerahzation is attributable to the .T<rts of contact met .- 
niorplusm, but it appears altoj^ether Iik.lv ,hat the f.rst class of 
ore bodies .nentioue.l n>av be referred to this cause, while possit>lv 
there mav have been a later fracturin.-; an<l lissuring with min'- 
crahzation to account for th. econd class. 

OwiuK to the nature of th occurrence of the ore .,n Conner 
"'""..tain it is a dillu-ult matter to make estimates of the average 
values that the rock would ^ive on assav. The ore bodies haCe 
i.o .lelnute boundaries, in fact the whole mountain is n.ore or 
ess nunerahze<l with c.mcentration taken place along certain 
hues, and what is classed as ore to .lav mav b,- too low a grade 
to give a profit t.,m..rr..w, .lepen.ling alf- .ther .,n the price of 
copper an.l the cost ,:f mining. The oomularies then will be 
merely commercial ones. .Mr. W. F. Robertson ma.le assavs 
of samples irom many of the dilTerent claims in i.joi and the 
results he obtamed were from one an.l a half to three per cent in 
copper ol average samples, with selecte.l samples going up t., 
eight ,,er cent. Most of them carrie.l a .small am.n.nt in gol.l 
It will be seen by this that tlics.. ore bo.lies are verv low grade' 
biat this IS compensated for bv their great size and the ease with 
winch they can be worke.l. 

I., the cuntry lying between One mile an.l Five mile creeks 
ju.d on the slofK. of Five-mile creek, several claims have been 
ocated, but only the western ,«,rtion ..f this area came within 
the district examined. The United lunpire group, consisting 
of nine claims, is on Allison mountain, and occurs in the same 
series ol metamorphosed sediments as occupies Kenne.h- moun- 
tain. Ihe whole hill is heavily covere.l with wash, and the rock 
wherever cx,x,sed, is decomposed to a nmch greater extent than 



SIMII.KAMEEN DISTRICT. H.C. 



37 



volcanic flows dunn^ th. glacial i^riod. which prevented this 
econiposed rock from being removed by the scot^ing ac^L o 
the glacier. At the base of the hill ,s a thick de,x>si. ,'f c b aiu 
de ntus washed down from the hill, and L-avilv larg 
vuh coppcT carbonate. This has probablv been derived fron> 
the leachmg out of a copper-bearing c.uartz vein higher p t 
hil Crrying the sulphides of copper. Evidence in support of 

the lull, at the bottom of which blocks of quartz, carrving chalco 

fsT xinT' '" "" '"°'"'"^^' ^^^■'^- '' '^ P-h^*^'^ that ttre 
ork lL7h'"'? '"'■•■T' "'PP'"' ^' ''"^ P'^**^^"- b"t "°t enough 
trike S r 7 '" ^'^•"""^^^^''^ t'--' «i^e of the vein or lis 
stnke. Surface indications, however, point to its having an ea- 
and west strike across the strike of the countrv rock, and in con 
formity with the strike of the fracture planes on Copper mountain. 

BE.VR CREEK. 

At the end of the season a hurried reconnaissance was made 
o a mineralized belt of rocks running from the Tulameen river 
at Champion creek, northward past the head of Bear creek, to 
.he Coldwater nver. Some very promising mining properties 
are being exploited in this region, and this belt o? rockf wei 
warrants a more extended geological study 

Briefly stated the geological conditions .re as follows - 
Stretching across m a northerly direction from the mouth of 
Champion creek to the head of Coldwa,, r river is a belt of light 
coloured gramte. In contact with this on the east side fs a 
series of metamorphosed sediments-limestones, quartzite and 

Sin Vr.'7/™" ^"^ '•"'"^^^^ "-^ ^° ^"^ Fish lakes 
From the Fish lakes to the forks of Eagle creek the granite is 

in contact with a dike-Hke mass of peridotite a mile or two wide 

which then strikes easterly at a sharp angle with the strike of 

which extends south to the Tulameen river and terminates a 
Champion creek. Bordering the peridotite and schists on the 
east ,s a large body of pyroxenite, which extend^ from the falls 
on Bear creek, where the wagon road crosses it. southward across 
the Tulameen nver, where it comes in contact with the granite 
The pyroxenite ,s succeeded on the east by enormous masses of 

nhir" H • "'"' '^^^ ""^^^^°- considerable metamo^ 
phism, and are earlier in age than those volcanic rocks previously 



.^s 



GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF CANADA. 



v^.1 



referred to in this report as occurring on the southern portion of 
the Similkainien river. Dikes of diabase, quartz-porphyry and 
granite porphyry cut all the other rocks and are consequently 
later in origin. 

Contacts between the granite and schists, between the granite 
and peridotite, and between the schists and peridotite and pjrox- 
enite, were discovered and studied in the field, and from these 
the geological relations were worked out. The schists, which 
are probably metamorphosed sediments, with the limestones and 
quartzites, are the oldest rocks in the district, for they are cut 
by all the others and arc found as inclusions in the granite and 
in the peridotite. Next in age comes the peridotite, and with 
this must he included the pyroxenite, though the latter is slightly 
the younger, for on Fagle creek dikes of pyroxenite were found 
cutting the peridotite. Prof. J. F. Kemp, who examined the 
district in 1900, reports the same conditions on the south side 
of the Tulameen river. The next rock in the sequence is the 
large batholithic mass of granite lying to the west. Contacts 
between this and the older rocks are well shown on the Tulameen 
river and on Eagle creek. Following the granite intrusions arc 
the sheared and metamorphosed \olcanic rocks, and later again 
are the dikes which have penetrated all the t)receding rocks. 

Mineral claims have been located all along this granite contact 
from Char;p-on creek across to the Coldwater river, and for many 
years the placers of the Tulameen river and its tributaries below 
Champion creek ha->e been profitably worked for gold and plat- 
inum. These placers are being gradually exhausted, and the 
Tulameen river, from being the principal producer of platinum 
on the Xorth American continent, has dwindled down to an 
annual output of thirty or forty ounces of that metal. Mining 
activity, however, is now being revived, and the production 
from lode mining will probably soon be far greater than it ever 
was in the best days of the placer miner. 

Most of the mineral claims have been located in the area of 
schists, limestones and quartiites, and some in the peridotite 
and pyroxenite belt. The metals for which they have been 
staked are gold, silver and copper; and the minerals occurring 
are pyrrhotite, pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite and calcite, with 
some zinc blende and molybdenite. 

Molybdenite is found in several places along the granite con- 
tact. At Independent camp, at the head of the Coldwater river, 
it occurs in fine scales in the granite porphyry, and at Champion 
creek it is found in little quartz stringers cutting the schists at 
and near the contact with the granite. 



SI.MILKAMEEN DISTRICT, H.C. 



39 



Among the most promising claims in the whole district arc the 
St. Lawrence group, owned l/V the Similkamecn Mining and 
Smelting Company of Vancouver. These were first located in 
the fall of 1900 by a party of Swedes, and are situated on the 
western side of Bear creek, and on the contact of the granite 
with the schists and limestones. The schists are mica schists, 
and they are interbedded with narrow hands of crystalline lime- 
stone. They dip at about 65° towards the granite, and are cut 
by some large and highly minerali7i'd dikes of granite-porphyry, 
which have a north and south trend approximately parallel to 
the trend of the granite. The ore is always found as.sociated 
with the limestone, and frequently replaces the lime bands en- 
tirely. The granite jxirphyry dikes appear to be the source of 
the ore. The limestone lieing the most soluble rocks have acted 
as channels for mineralized solutions from the dikes, and they 
have at times become entirely replaced by sulphides These 
solutions ascending from below and following the lime bands 
have deix)sited their sulphides against the mica schist, which 
always acts as a hanging wall to the vein. Two veins have been 
opened up on this group, each of them from seven to eight feet 
wide, and the ore in them appears to be almost pure pyrrhotitc. 
The values are high in copper, gold and silver, and altogether 
the propertv has the car marks of a permanent ])roduciiig mine. 

Another important group of claims is the Independent group, 
owned by Messrs. Johnson, Holmes & Henning, and situated 
on the summit of the divide between Bear creek and the Cold- 
water river. This group is also on the contact of the granite 
body with mica schists. Here the ore body is a highly mineralized 
zone of rock extending from the edge of the" schists about i,otMj 
feet westward into the granite. Two thousand feet away from 
the schists the granite becomes gneissic though still holding 
inclusions of the mica schists. \o sharp line of contact could 
be discovered between the ore body and the unaltered granite, 
only that the mineralization by sulphides appears to gradually 
decrease until at 1,200 feet away from the schist it disappears. 
The ore body is highly altered and kaolinized, where mineraliza- 
tion is greatest, and it appears to be of the nature of a dike of 
granite -porphyry intruded between the schists and the granite, 
though it is possible it may only be a mineralization and altera- 
tion of the same granite at and near the contact with the schists. 
Inclusions of mica schists occur in the unaltered granite, as well 
as in the ore body. The greatest alteration is about the centre 
of the mineralized zone, where a small vein of pure iron and copper 
sulphides cuts the porphyry at an angle of 45 degrees. The 



.,^'4:i^.crt^ji.^'^ 



40 



(JKOLOGICAL SURVKV OF C ANAH A 



ffldspur hirv is kaolinizcd, though the quart/ is unaltered, atid 
sotiif secondary calcite has been de\iloped. MineraUzation 
throuRhout the bo<ly of the porphyry is usuady by individual 
crystals of iron and copper pyrites, more rarely by veins and 
bunches of these minerals. Only in the highly aUered zone does 
oxidation extend to a depth of twenty feet from the surface. 
Some moly'.denite occurs in thin seams and flakes near the con- 
tact with the mica schist. The values are entirely in copper, 
and are low, but the ore body is an enormous one. The group 
consists of ten claims, which have all been staked on the same 
contact, running down into the Cold water river. 

Numerous other claims were visited in this section of countrv, 
among them being the Keruna group on Bear creek, and the 
Boulder Creek camp, east of Bear creek. The former lies in the 
same series of altered sedimentary rocks as were described on 
the St. Lawrence group. These are cut by dikes of a porphy- 
ritic character, which strike about .v^<'°- The ore occurs as 
little veins and bunches in the sediments at and near the con- 
tact of the dikes. The minerals found are pyrite, chalcopyrite 
and pyrrhotite, and the values are in gold and silver. 

At Boulder creek the claims are located in a soft, green ser- 
pentine, which often has a schistose structure developed in it, 
and which appears to be an altered volcanic rock. These ore 
bodies are in blanket veins, interbedded with the country rock, 
and the minerals occurring are pyrite, chalcopyrite and some 
galena. The values are in gold or copper, or both, the one in- 
creasing as the other decreases. 

Owing to the enormous rise in the price of platinum in the last 
year, and to the fact that the basin of the Tulameen river once 
produced a larger amount of platinum than any other part of 
North America, it is altogether probable that at'.empts will 
again be made by interested parties in the near future to locate 
the source of the metal in this district, or to work some of the 
higher bench deposits of gravel which are known to carry plat- 
inum, but which necessitated too large an outlay of capital to 
have been worked be ore. Prof. J. F. Kemp spent about three 
months in the summer of 1900 in investigating the geology of 
the platinum, and though he was not successful to the extent of 
finding any large bodies of rock which could be profitably mined, 
he was able to throw a great deal of light on the origin and 
occurrence of the metal. His results are embodied in bulletin 
193, of the United States Geological Survey. 

The Tulameen section of the country presents a great many 
more difficulties to the prospector than the Similkameen country. 



SIMILKAMCKN DISTRICT, IIC. 



4« 



Till' fornuT is viry hcavilv titr.lKri'<l ;iml trails art' ft-vv and roiixli. 
Rock cxjx)Siiris. liowi'Vtr, arc most i-onmion, except wIktc the 
country is underlaid hy the schists a'ld limestones, as in the upfn-r 
parts of lUar creek. Here the xrowtlt of the timber is heavier 
than usual, and tlie country is so covered with drift thi.t rock ex- 
jx)snres very rarely occur, and it has oidy l)een hy much labour 
that ore bodies have been located. It is here, tliou^;ii, that 
c(»liditions for the formation of ore bodies are so favourable that 
other imj)or' ml discoveries are to be looked for in the future 



OEPAP 

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COPPER MOUNTAIN MINING CAMP 

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218. We.Hicrii New HriinHwj> k i-n 1 KaM'Tii N..v i >,.. ,ii. i,v K. W. Klb?. IHV. l.'i»i-. i 
219 CarlctuD and Viotoriu <■«• . bv ', \V Hailcy ist") ;iUi- 

242. Victoria, l{onti(f)U.-lii anl .VnriliuniiMiian.! inuiitic:. N.H !i'. I W. Hmlnv 

anil W . M.lnii.-s ISStl to.- 

243. Ouvaborouel.. Antie'ni^li l'iit..'i, ' .,i.li.-^i' .-lii.i Ualifa.v i.uiit..-. \ s . i,y 

Hutjii Kli'tiluT .-iin K U, harii.aiiit. Ivsi,, ,;;.-„■ 

269. Northprn iMirliiiii ami a.ljarciii »r.'aM. hv I -V tH^lcv uii.i W \! '';.. ISST-HS 
i2.V, J 

330 TriiiiAcoiiHiu ami lliiii<>u-.k. owsBUpa. bv I W itnUev aiiJ W M. I n . I,><<»o-'Jl 

iUk- ' 

331 I'ictou and C'jichester I'tiunties. S S. bv H H.-tiin-r IttyO-'H 20. 

358. Soiilliwpslirn .V.iva Srotm (Prcliminan . hv I W Bailiv iWJ-i in,.) 

628. .SoiitbwcsiiTM Ni)v a Si^,tia. bv ! W Haili-^ Ivui. ■jih 
661 Mineral rr«.<ir<>'« .S I» hv I." * Hiiilev 1897 (10. 

Ne* Hriiti.iwii k <»».i.)K.v. b"v H. VV. Klls" I.SK7 lOr 
'97. Cambriai. pm k~ i Ca[»' Hreton, In «! ^ Maiili.w \'»Hi ".!•■ 
799. Carbonifernii- >v8teni n \ B . bvl . \V Baile'. mi") lOi.i , „ , 
803. Coal pro«p.-.t» ,n N K bv H S "Pooie n*Otl. I(>, . ,• t^ou.-i tugpih»r. 

871 Pii'tou .oai field bv il S. Pool. IWC HOe 

IN PRl'-*^ 



977. HefKirt on P<-inbr.)kp ^heel , ilut, -in.! v^ile , by 11 \^ ^;i!.. 

949 Report on ('a.»iad«r- Coal Ha.iin by 1) U. Dowlnn; 

953 Mineral He>*ource«« hiilletin. Marvte-*. hv H < !'..,».. 

970 li»'i>ort on \ia8:^t.-j4 laiU, by i »r .1 VV S[>eucer 

968. Report t ••rri.inpitiiv mav *»f the Mno-e Mountii.ii -it.-a llta . 

9fll Rpprin No H7;i. 

flti'J .N > ii72 



b-. !■ n r"airn.-.. 



I.\ I'Hi.r VHAl lu.S. 

KoK.'tland dislncl, 1*.C full report . by M W Hrork 

Report on Prince K.lward county, Itrickville an.i Knur- "n inai' -lieer h\ It \V I'll.i, 
Rvport on Cornwall ^lieet, by R VV Ell.-!. 

Reports on Country betwwo ] :\k- SupiT-.H anil .Albmv rm:-. bv W J. \V:i,..,i. „ij 
W. H Collins 



i 



u